Gangliosides are amphipathic lipids ubiquitously expressed in all vertebrate cells. They have been reported to play pivotal roles in cell morphology, cell adhesion, signal transduction, and modulation of immune reaction. Although human kidney contains various kinds of ganglioside, their physiological and pathophysiological roles have not been elucidated yet. As ganglioside GM3 is the most abundant ganglioside in human kidney, we tried to reveal the distribution of GM3 using histological analysis. Macroscopically normal parts of operatively resected kidney from renal cell carcinoma patients were used for analyses. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses were performed with anti-GM3 antibody. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that GM3 was observed in glomeruli and renal proximal tubules. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that GM3 was localized on the foot process of podocyte and also in Golgi region of renal proximal tubule cells. Ganglioside GM3 might take a part of the negative electric charge on the surface of podocyte and its multiple physiological actions may play pivotal roles for maintaining glomerular function.