Histochemical Studies on Two Milliped Species

Abstract

Histological and histochemical tests give similar results for the midguts of Floridobolus penneri (Causey, 1957) and Narceus gordanus (Chamberlin, 1943). The peritrophic membrane is composed of basic proteins and acid mucopolysaccharides. The epithelium contains basic proteins and large lipid concentrations, including glycolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The luminal epithelial border gives reactions for protein-bound amino groups, tyrosine and phenolic compounds, and neutral fats. Protein-bound amino groups, glycoproteins, acid mucopolysaccharides, and bound lipids are found in the collagenous basement membrane. The circular and longitudinal muscle layers contain basic proteins, tyrosine and phenols, and bound fats. A large glycogen concentration occurs within the sheath membrane. This region, which is primarily basic protein, also gives positive reactions for protein-bound groups and both tyrosine and phenols. Little work has been done on the internal anatomy of diplopods. Early anatomical studies included investigations by Verhoeff (1914), Randow (1924), Attems (1926), Hefner (1929), and Miley (1930). Most biochemical analyses have included the whole animal and not particular organs or tissues. Siddiqui, et al. (1944) isolated dimethylglyoxime from a species of Indian diplopod. Bergmann (1949) reported that Ueno and Yamasaki had isolated a sterol from the saponifiable matter of millipeds. Blower (1951) found that the cuticle of diplopods was composed of two layers of chitinous materials. Recent studies on diplopods have included repugnatorial secretions. Some investigators of these substances were Schildknecht and Weis (1961), Monro, et al. (1962), and Wheeler, etal. (1964). The purpose of this investigation was to compare the histology and histochemistry of the midgut of two milliped species, Narceus gordanus (Chamberlin, 1943) and Floridobolus penneri (Causey, 1957) and to determine the relative amount and distribution of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in each tissue layer. This work was considered important because, through it, a better understanding of the defense reactions of larval spiny-headed worms could be gained (Bowen, 1967). MATERIALS AND METHODS Diplopods used in this study were obtained from the vicinity of the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, by Dr. Lawrence R. Penner. Fifteen Narceus gordanus and 25 Floridobolus penneri were decapitated and drained of coelomic fluid. The midguts were then removed and placed in a variety of fixatives. Histological fixatives included Bouin's and Zenker's fluids and 10% formalin. Histochemical fixatives included: Carnoy's and Newcomer's solutions for carbohydrates; cobalt calcium formol and 10% formalin for lipids; and Bouin's, Carnoy's, and Zenker's fluids to demonstrate proteins. The tissues were dehydrated in alcohols, cleared in benzene, and infiltrated in paraffin at 60°C. for 12 hours. They were then embedded and sectioned between 8 to 10 microns on a rotary microtome. Frozen sections, prepared to demonstrate lipids, were sectioned to thinknesses of between 15 and 20 microns on a cryostat. Mallory's aniline blue (McManus and Lowry, 1960) and Gomori's trichrome Contributed from a dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Connecticut in June, 1966, in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This study was performed under the supervision of Dr. Lawrence R. Penner. Manuscript received May 22, 1967. THE OHIO JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 68(2): 85, March, 1968. 86 RAYMOND C. BOWEN Vol. 68 {Humason, 1962) stains were used to exhibit the fibrous components of the tissues. A modification of Van Gieson's picrofuchsin method (McManus and Mowry, 1960) determined the distribution of collagen. The Goldner-Foot modification of Masson's trichrome stain (Preece, 1959) also demonstrated collagen. Sections utilizing these methods were dehydrated in alcohols, cleared in xylene, and mounted in Permount (Fisher Scientific Co., Fairlawn, N. J.). Sections stained by the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) technique for carbohydrates were placed into four groups. The first group was subjected to the PAS reaction (McManus and Mowry, 1960). The second was exposed to Schiff's reagent without prior oxidation by periodic acid to determine the presence of free aldehydes. The third was acetylated from 24 to 48 hours with an acetic anhydride-pyridine mixture (McManus and Cason, 1950) to esterify reactive groups of the tissues. The final group consisted of acetylated sections that were saponified with an ammonical alcohol mixture (McManus and Mowry, 1960) for 24 hours. Best's carmine and Baurer's glycogen stains (McManus and Mowry, 1960), in addition to the PAS technique, determined the presence of glycogen. Control sections were incubated in a 0.5% solution of malt diastase (Gomori, 1952) for 20 minutes prior to staining. The Kelig extraction methods (Pearse, 1960), in conjunction with PAS staining, showed the amount of glycolipids. Sections incubated with 0.1% pepsin in 0.01N HC1 (Gersh and Catchpole, 1949), followed by the PAS reaction, determined the presence of glycoproteins. The alcian-green staining procedure (Putt and Huskill, 1962) manifested the distribution of mucins and mucopolysaccharides. Control sections were methylated by the Fisher-Lillie techniques as outlined by Lillie (1965). Some methylated sections were subjected to the PAS reaction to distinguish mucins and mucopolysaccharides from other PAS-positive materials. Metachromasia of the tissues was determined by the standard toluidine-blue method (Pearse, I960) at pH 5.5 and 7.0. The propylene-glycol sudan method (Chiffelle and Putt, 1951) was used to determine the distribution of lipids. Sections incubated in a 50% methanolchloroform solution at 60°C. for 24 hours served as controls for most lipid procedures. Neutral fats were distinguished from fatty acids by Mallory's nile blue A method (Humason, 1962). A general distribution of compound lipids was shown by the McManus sudan black B and the Berenbaum acetone-sudan-black methods (Pearse, 1960). Unsaturated fats were determined by the performic-acid Schiff reaction (McManus and Mowry, 1960). Control sections were brominated with a 2.5% solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride (Lillie, 1954) for one hour prior to performic acid oxidation. The Menschik nile-blue method (Pearse, 1960) was used as the phospholipid procedure. The presence of melanin and lipofuchsin was resolved by the Lillie nile-blue method (Humason, 1962). Control sections were incubated in 10% H2O2 for 24 hours at 25°C. The mercuric bromphenol blue (Hg-BPB) method (Mazia, Brewer, and Alfert, 1953) detected the distribution of basic and total proteins in the tissues. These authors found that all proteins bound the dye in the presence of the mercuric salt, but only basic proteins bound the dye when the salt was omitted. Proteinbound amino groups were exhibited by the ninhydrin-Schiff reaction (Pearse, 1960). The distribution of phenols and tyrosine was determined by a modification of the Millon reaction (Gomori, 1952). A qualitative scale was developed to demonstrate the relative number of reactive groups in tissues subjected to the Hg-BPB procedure and techniques utilizing Schiff's reagent. The scale ranged from a very strong reaction to a weak one. Mazia, Brewer, and Alfert (1953) and Hotchkiss (1948) found the intensity of these respective dyes to be directly proportional to the number of reactive sites in the tissues.

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@inproceedings{SPECIES2017HistochemicalSO, title={Histochemical Studies on Two Milliped Species}, author={MILLIPED SPECIES and R. Chris Bowen}, year={2017} }