Hikikomori : Multidimensional understanding, assessment, and future international perspectives

  title={Hikikomori : Multidimensional understanding, assessment, and future international perspectives},
  author={Takahiro A. Kato and Shigenobu Kanba and Alan Robert Teo},
  journal={Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal, has long been observed in Japan mainly among youth and adolescents since around the 1970s, and has been especially highlighted since the late 1990s. Moreover, hikikomori‐like cases have recently been reported in many other countries. Hikikomori negatively influences not only the individual's mental health and social participation, but also wider education and workforce stability, and as such is a novel urgent global issue. In this review, we… 

Hikikomori: psychopathology and differential diagnosis of a condition with epidemic diffusion

Hikikomori is now considered a contemporary society-bound syndrome linked to modern society changes and could represent the clinical answer to a social evolution, similarly to other phenomena such as binge behaviours and use of psychoactive substances.

Hikikomori and modern-type depression in Italy: A new phenotypical trans-cultural characterization?

Introduction: Hikikomori is a Japanese term etymologically derived from ‘hiku’ (i.e. ‘to pull back’) and ‘komoru’ (i.e. ‘seclude oneself’), which identifies those subjects who deliberately withdraw

Recognizing Hikikomori as a clinical term in psychiatry: Moving beyond a cultural idiom of distress

Hikikomori refers to a state of prolonged social withdrawal for 6 months or longer in adolescents and young adults. Marked by social isolation in one’s home, it may result in functional impairment,

Preliminary study of the social withdrawal (hikikomori) spectrum in French adolescents: focusing on the differences in pathology and related factors compared with Japanese adolescents

Background Social withdrawal (hikikomori) has become an internationally recognized phenomenon, but its pathology and related factors are not yet fully known. We previously conducted a statistical

Social Withdrawal (Hikikomori) Conditions in China: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey

Objective A form of pathological social withdrawal which is also called hikikomori has been proved its existence in China. But the prevalence and characteristics of hikikomori in China remain

Reliability and Validation of Turkish Version of the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire

It has been seen that HQ-25 might be safely used in academic studies and clinical practice to assess social isolation and is a new potential self-report instrument that might help assessment social isolation.

Hikikomori from the Perspective of Overuse, Underuse, and Optimal Use of Character Strengths: Case Reports

Hikikomori, or social withdrawal youth has become one of the most pressing social issues in Japan and this phenomenon is increasing in other countries as well. While there is a movement to

The ‘Hikikomori’ syndrome: worldwide prevalence and co-occurring major psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol summarising worldwide prevalence of the ‘Hikikomori’ syndrome in general population and clinical samples with psychiatric disorders and which psychiatric disorders listed in the classification systems are most frequently associated with this psychological condition affecting young people is described.

Understanding the experiences of hikikomori through the lens of the CHIME framework: connectedness, hope and optimism, identity, meaning in life, and empowerment; systematic review

The psychosocial recovery framework of Connectedness, Hope and Optimism, Identity, Meaning in Life, and Empowerment (CHIME) towards hikikomori care was reviewed and it was suggested that the CHIME framework is applicable after modifying a specific dimension—‘ meaning of mental illness experiences’ into ‘meaning of the hikkomori experience’.



Does the ‘hikikomori’ syndrome of social withdrawal exist outside Japan? A preliminary international investigation

Patients with the hikikomori syndrome are perceived as occurring across a variety of cultures by psychiatrists in multiple countries, providing a rational basis for study of the existence and epidemiology of hikkomori in clinical or community populations in international settings.

General condition of hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal) in Japan: Psychiatric diagnosis and outcome in mental health welfare centres

Most hikkomori cases can be diagnosed using current diagnostic criteria, and individuals with hikikomori are much worse if they do not seek help.

Identification of the hikikomori syndrome of social withdrawal: Psychosocial features and treatment preferences in four countries

Hikikomori exists cross-nationally and can be assessed with a standardized assessment tool, and some may desire treatment, and has substantial psychosocial impairment and disability.

Hikikomori, a Japanese Culture-Bound Syndrome of Social Withdrawal?: A Proposal for DSM-5

  • A. TeoA. Gaw
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 2010
It is suggested hikikomori may be considered a culture-bound syndrome and merits further international research into whether it meets accepted criteria as a new psychiatric disorder.

Hikikomori in Spain: A descriptive study

Its difficult detection and treatment highlights the need for specialized domiciliary teams, and the high comorbidity leads us to conclude that it may not be a new diagnosis, but rather a severe syndrome associated with multiple mental illnesses.

Clarifying Deeper Psychological Characteristics of Hikikomori Using the Rorschach Comprehensive System: A Pilot Case–Control Study

The present results suggest that persons with hikikomori are more likely to express emotions indirectly and expect others to presume their feelings and thoughts, and may have difficulty in becoming independent emotionally from primitive dependence and attachment on significant others.

Hikikomori as a possible clinical term in psychiatry: a questionnaire survey

It is proposed that the term hikikomori could be used to describe severe social withdrawal in the setting of a number of psychiatric disorders.

Are Japan's hikikomori and depression in young people spreading abroad?

Multidimensional anatomy of ‘modern type depression’ in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM‐5

A novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD is proposed in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.

[Hikikomori (ひきこもり): a culture-bound syndrome in the web 2.0 era].

The case of M. is a 28-year-old man, who has lived the last 10 years in a state of almost complete isolation and maintained contacts with the outside world almost exclusively via internet, and represents, to the authors' knowledge, the first case of hikikomori described in Italy.