A review on B-type natriuretic peptide monitoring: assays and biosensors
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the leading threat to human life. An effective way for sensitive and accurate CVD diagnosis is to measure the biochemical markers released from the damaged myocardial cells in the bloodstream. Here, a multi-analyte, fluorophore mediated, fiber-optic immuno-biosensing system is being developed to simultaneously and rapidly quantify four clinically important cardiac markers, myoglobin, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, and B-type natriuretic peptide. To quantify these markers at a pico-molar level, novel nanoparticle reagents enhancing fluorescence were used and signal enhancement was obtained as high as approximately 230%. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) was integrated to this system to ensure a reliable and fully-automated sensing performance. A point-of-care, automatic microfluidic sensing system for four cardiac marker quantification was developed with the properties of 3 cm sensor size, 300 microL sample volume, 9-minute assay time, and an average signal-to-noise ratio of 35.