Higher-Order Substitutions

@article{Duggan2001HigherOrderS,
  title={Higher-Order Substitutions},
  author={Dominic Duggan},
  journal={Inf. Comput.},
  year={2001},
  volume={164},
  pages={1-53}
}
The ??-calculus is a concrete ?-calculus of explicit substitutions, designed for reasoning about implementations of ?-calculi. Higher-order abstract syntax is an approach to metaprogramming that explicitly captures the variable-binding aspects of programming language constructs. A new calculus of explicit substitutions for higher-order abstract syntax is introduced, allowing a high-level description of variable binding in object languages while also providing substitutions as explicit… 

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