Through building a socialist “harmonious society” is becoming the highlight for current theoretical studies and the direction of practice, the issue of growing income distance attracts wide attentions. Some studies have shown that higher education equity makes a considerable impact on income distribution. Therefore, the relationship between higher education equity and income distribution has become a hot issue to domestic and foreign scholars. So the paper firstly reviews the origin and development of the educational capital (human capital), followed by the introduction of some important results of higher education equity and income distribution; secondly, it focuses on the relationship between education equity and income distribution. Finally, it summarizes some researches about higher education equity and income distribution, and points out that the future direction we should focus on. Keywords—human capital, higher education equity, income distribution,relationship.