High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite.

  title={High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite.},
  author={Yenny Hern{\'a}ndez and Valeria Nicolosi and Mustafa Lotya and Fiona M. Blighe and Zhenyu Sun and Sukanta De and I. T. McGovern and Brendan Holland and Michele T. Byrne and Yurii K. Gun’ko and John B. Boland and Peter Niraj and Georg S. Duesberg and Satheesh Krishnamurthy and Robbie Goodhue and John C. Hutchison and Vittorio Scardaci and Andrea C. Ferrari and Jonathan N. Coleman},
  journal={Nature nanotechnology},
  volume={3 9},
Fully exploiting the properties of graphene will require a method for the mass production of this remarkable material. Two main routes are possible: large-scale growth or large-scale exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate graphene dispersions with concentrations up to approximately 0.01 mg ml(-1), produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone. This is possible because the energy required to exfoliate graphene is balanced by the solvent-graphene… 

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High concentration and stable few-layer graphene dispersions prepared by the exfoliation of graphite in different organic solvents

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Eco-friendly exfoliation of graphite into pristine graphene with little defect by a facile physical treatment

The superior properties of graphene in applications ranging from electronic devices to composites have been extensively reported. So far, no mass production of defect-free few-layer graphene has been

Liquid exfoliation of defect-free graphene.

  • J. Coleman
  • Chemistry, Materials Science
    Accounts of chemical research
  • 2013
This Account describes recent work to develop such a processing route inspired by previous theoretical and experimental studies on the solvent dispersion of carbon nanotubes, and extends this process to exfoliate other layered compounds such as BN and MoS(2).

Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids.

It is shown that high-shear mixing of graphite in suitable stabilizing liquids results in large-scale exfoliation to give dispersions of graphene nanosheets in liquid volumes from hundreds of millilitres up to hundreds of litres and beyond.

Semi-transparent, conductive thin films of electrochemical exfoliated graphene

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The bipolar electrochemical exfoliation method provides a pathway for intercalation on a wider range of graphite substrates and enhances the efficiency of the exfoliated graphene sheets.



Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium.

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Graphene-based composite materials

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Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets.

It is reported that chemically converted graphene sheets obtained from graphite can readily form stable aqueous colloids through electrostatic stabilization, making it possible to process graphene materials using low-cost solution processing techniques, opening up enormous opportunities to use this unique carbon nanostructure for many technological applications.

Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper

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Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material.

A solution-based method is reported that allows uniform and controllable deposition of reduced graphene oxide thin films with thicknesses ranging from a single monolayer to several layers over large areas, which could represent a route for translating the interesting fundamental properties of graphene into technologically viable devices.

Solubility of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires in common solvents: a sedimentation study.

The sedimentation properties of the various phases did not vary significantly with concentration indicating that the insoluble nanowires are intrinsically insoluble, and the diameter of the stably dispersed bundles decreased with concentration, until very small bundles consisting of only two or three nanowire composites were observed at concentrations below 0.003 mg/mL.

Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor.

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Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene.

This work shows that the fluctuations are significantly reduced in suspended graphene samples and reports low-temperature mobility approaching 200,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 for carrier densities below 5 x 109 cm-2, which cannot be attained in semiconductors or non-suspended graphene.

Exfoliation in ecstasy: liquid crystal formation and concentration-dependent debundling observed for single-wall nanotubes dispersed in the liquid drug γ-butyrolactone

Large-scale debundling of single-walled nanotubes has been demonstrated by dilution of nanotube dispersions in the solvent γ-butyrolactone. This liquid, sometimes referred to as ‘liquid ecstasy’, is