Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to the determination of phthalate esters in human serum. The present method decreased the sample preparation time by a factor of 50 by using direct immersion SPME with an 85-microm polyacrylate fiber to extract phthalate esters from the matrix. The use of fast GC/MS further improves total analysis time when compared to other techniques. Isotope dilution was successfully applied to improve the precision, reproducibility, and repeatability of the SPME method. The linear dynamic range spans several orders of magnitude from low ppb to ppm levels, and the LOD for the method is 15 pg microL(-1) on average with RSDs less than 4% for the six phthalate esters included in this study.