High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L

  title={High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L},
  author={Philip E. Taylor and Gwyneth M. Card and J. M. House and Michael H. Dickinson and Richard C. Flagan},
  journal={Sexual Plant Reproduction},
Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. [] Key Method We investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear at the stomium, ensuring dehiscence of the anther, and subsequently enabled the anther to slip off a restraining pistillode…

Ingenious floral structure drives explosive pollination in Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

Catapult-like stamens, spoon-shaped sepals and enclosed united bracts in the spathe together constitute the functional structure in rapid stamen movement of H. verticillata, and ensure that the pollen can be released on the water surface, and thus adapt successfully to the pollen-epihydrophilous pollination.

Anatomy solves the puzzle of explosive pollen release in wind-pollinated urticalean rosids.

The anatomical structure of the pistillode and the finding of mucilaginous cells are the main features that help in the understanding the explosive mechanism of pollen release in urticalean rosids.

Reproductive strategies of Strobilanthes kunthianus, an endemic, semelparous species in southern Western Ghats, India

The evolution of the adaptive floral traits has facilitated mast seeding in the species and rendered the species 100% pollination efficient to ensure a high seed set.

Measurement of pollen clump release and breakup in the vicinity of ragweed (A. confertiflora) staminate flowers

Initial release and dispersal of ragweed pollen clumps is characterized by three concomitant mechanisms of clump breakup occurring at entrainment, in mid-air and on deposition, which make it perfectly suited to disperse pollen over a wide range of spatial scales.

The mechanism for explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta (Brassicaceae).

PREMISE Although many highly successful weed species use a ballistic seed dispersal mechanism, little is known about the mechanics of this process. Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) siliques are

Comparative analysis of pollen release biomechanics in Thalictrum: Implications for evolutionary transitions between animal and wind pollination.

A comparative study of pollen release biomechanics in 36 species of animal- and wind-pollinated Thalictrum suggests diverse phenotypic trajectories from animal to wind pollination and quantifies pollination syndromes and stamen natural frequency, a key vibration parameter, to determine if floral traits reliably predicted pollen release probability.

Hydration history and attachment morphology regulate seed release in Chorizanthe rigida (Polygonaceae), a serotinous desert annual.

A biomechanical approach is used to analyze seed release in Chorizanthe rigida, a serotinous desert annual, to understand the adaptive significance of seed retention in this species, which allows this species to cope with desert environmental variability by influencing the timing and number of seeds released.




In Trophis involucrata, a dioecious tree in the understorey of a Lowland Tropical Rain forest in Costa Rica, the anther filaments are held under tension, and as the flower opens the filaments spring out violently and theAnthers concurrently release pollen in a small cloud, which should facilitate the capture of pollen by pistillate plants.

Explosive Anther Dehiscence in Ricinus communis L. Involves Cell Wall Modifications and Relative Humidity

Patterns of cell differentiation in the single-layered anther wall of R. communis L. appear to be responsible for explosive pollen release, and both anther opening and distance pollen is launched are influenced by relative humidity.

Botany: A record-breaking pollen catapult

High-speed video observations show that the flower stamens of the bunchberry dogwood rely on this principle to catapult pollen into the air as the flower opens explosively, to be the fastest movement so far recorded in a plant.

On the origin of the fig: phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences.

The chloroplast gene ndhF is sequenced to examine relationships in Moraceae and to elucidate shifts in reproductive traits, and strong support for the sister-group relationship of a revised Castilleae with Ficus suggests that entomophily and involucral bracts encircling the flowers preceded the evolution of the syconium.

Sexual Dimorphism in Catasetum Orchids: Forcible Pollen Emplacement and Male Flower Competition

Orchids of the Neotropical genus Catasetum have sexually dimorphic flowers; that is, male and female flowers are distinctly different in shape and color, and aversive pollinarium emplacement can account for widespread sexual dimorphism in Catasets and for interspecific variations in its expression.

Stamen Structure and Function

Stamens are the male reproductive organs of flowering plants. They consist of an anther, the site of pollen development, and in most species a stalk-like filament, which transmits water and nutrients

Physical Limits and Design Principles for Plant and Fungal Movements

This study shows that quantification of the length and time scales involved in plant and fungal motions leads to a natural classification, whose physical basis can be understood through an analysis of the mechanics of water transport through an elastic tissue.

Living in a physical world II. The bio-ballistics of small projectiles

  • S. Vogel
  • Physics, Education
    Journal of Biosciences
  • 2007
For most of us, the trajectories of projectiles appeared briefly early in a basic physics course, and some tidy equations emerged in unambiguous fashion from just two facts.

A record-breaking catapult

  • Nature
  • 2005