High speed inverse model implementation for real-time control of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic transducers operating in nonlinear and hysteretic regimes

Ferroelectric (e.g., PZT), ferromagnetic, and ferroelastic (e.g., shape memory alloy) materials exhibit varying degrees of hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities at all drive levels due to their inherent domain structure. At low drive levels, these nonlinear effects can be mitigated through feedback mechanisms or certain amplifier architectures (e.g… (More)