High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples.


We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) microm2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

DOI: 10.1063/1.3133704

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@article{Fuchs2009HighresolutionHS, title={High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples.}, author={Oliver Fuchs and Lothar Weinhardt and Monika Blum and M. Weigand and Eberhard Umbach and M B{\"a}r and Clemens Heske and Jonathan D. Denlinger and Y D Chuang and Willie McKinney and Zahid Hussain and Eric M. Gullikson and Marcus Jones and P C Batson and Berit Nelles and Rolf Follath}, journal={The Review of scientific instruments}, year={2009}, volume={80 6}, pages={063103} }