High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models

  title={High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models},
  author={Jane M. Bromley and Rachel S Somerville and Andrew C. Fabian},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
We investigate the constraints on models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) and quasar formation obtainable from two recent observational developments: the discovery of luminous quasars at z ∼ 6, and estimates of the local mass density of SMBHs. If ∼90 per cent of this mass was accreted at redshifts z ≤ 3, as suggested by the observed quasar luminosity functions, these joint constraints pose a challenge for models, which must account for the observed luminous quasar population at z ∼ 6 within a… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

A simple model for the evolution of supermassive black holes and the quasar population
An empirically motivated model is presented for accretion-dominated growth of the super massive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies, and the implications are studied for the evolution of the quasarExpand
X-ray emission from high-redshift miniquasars: self-regulating the population of massive black holes through global warming
Observations of high-redshift quasars at z � 6 imply that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses M � 10 9 M⊙ were in place less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. If these SMBHs assembled fromExpand
The supermassive black holes (SMBHs) massive enough ( few ×109 M ☉) to power the bright redshift z ≈ 6 quasars observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are thought to have assembled by mergersExpand
Spin, accretion, and the cosmological growth of supermassive black holes
If supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are the energy sources that power quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), then QSO SDSS 1148+5251, the quasar with the highest redshift (zQSO = 6.43), hosts anExpand
Driving the Growth of the Earliest Supermassive Black Holes with Major Mergers of Host Galaxies
The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of $\sim 10^9\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$ SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts $z> 6$ in particular, remains an openExpand
We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 < z < 6. In the model, black hole (BH) mass is linearly related to galaxy mass, and galaxiesExpand
The effect of baryonic streaming motions on the formation of the first supermassive black holes
Observations of quasars at redshifts z > 6 reveal that 10^9 Msol supermassive black holes (SMBHs) had already formed when the Universe was 20. This is the regime where baryonic streaming motions--theExpand
The New Numerical Galaxy Catalogue (ν2GC): properties of active galactic nuclei and their host galaxies
We present the latest results of a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, "New Numerical Galaxy Catalogue", which is combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. This model can reproduceExpand
Imaging of sdss z > 6 quasar fields : Gravitational lensing, companion galaxies, and the host dark matter halos
We have undertaken deep optical imaging observations of three 6.2 < z < 6.5 quasar fields in the i' and z' filters. These data are used to search for foreground galaxies that are gravitationallyExpand
Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation
We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on ΛCDM proposed by Baugh et al. Our black hole model has one free parameter,Expand


Quasars and galaxy formation
Quasars are widely believed to be powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes and there is now considerable evidence for a link between mergers, the activity of quasars and the formation ofExpand
The Merger History of Supermassive Black Holes in Galaxies
The ubiquity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the centers of nearby luminous galaxies can arise from the multiple mergers experienced by dark matter halos in hierarchical structure formationExpand
The Assembly and Merging History of Supermassive Black Holes in Hierarchical Models of Galaxy Formation
We assess models for the assembly of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of galaxies that trace their hierarchical buildup far up in the dark halo merger tree. Motivated by the recentExpand
What Is the Highest Plausible Redshift of Luminous Quasars
The recent discoveries of luminous quasars at high redshifts imply that black holes more massive than a few billion solar masses were already assembled when the universe was less than a billion yearsExpand
A Physical Model for the Luminosity Function of High-Redshift Quasars
We provide a simple theoretical model for the quasar luminosity function at high redshifts that naturally reproduces the statistical properties of the luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasarExpand
Major mergers of haloes, the growth of massive black holes and the evolving luminosity function of quasars
We construct a physically motivated analytical model for the quasar luminosity function, based on the joint star formation and feeding of massive black holes suggested by the observed correlationExpand
A unified model for the evolution of galaxies and quasars
We incorporate a simple scheme for the growth of supermassive black holes into semi-analytic models that follow the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cold dark matter-dominated Universe. WeExpand
High-redshift galaxies, their active nuclei and central black holes
We demonstrate that the luminosity function of the recently detected population of actively star-forming galaxies at redshift z = 3 and the B-band luminosity function of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs)Expand
Self-regulated Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Galaxies as the Origin of the Optical and X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Quasars
We postulate that supermassive black holes grow in the centers of galaxies until they unbind the galactic gas that feeds them. We show that the corresponding self-regulation condition yields aExpand
Observational constraints on growth of massive black holes
We study the observational constraints on the growth of massive black holes (BHs) in galactic nuclei. We use the velocity dispersions of early-type galaxies obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky SurveyExpand