Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a human parvovirus that in laboratory and animal models has the ability to supress the oncogenic phenotype of a variety of viruses and cellular derived oncogenes. The inhibitory effects of AAV have been mapped to its rap gene (Rep 78 protein). Furthermore, seroepidemiologic data indicate that AAV infection is linked to reduced cervical cancer rates in humans. Because of AAV's inverse relationship with cervical cancer, we attempted to identify AAV rep sequences within DNA derived from cervical brushings taken from nondiseased middle class patients at a Little Rock clinic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was carried out with primers designed to amplify a specific segment of the endogenous human β-globin gene or the AAV rep gene. Of those cervical samples that were positive for β-globin DNA, 50% were also found to be positive for AAV rep DNA when analyzed by either ethidium bromide staining or dot-blot hybridization with an internal probe. These data strongly suggest that AAV is commonly carried in the genital region and further raise the possibility that AAV can be sexually transmitted.