High levels of heavy metal accumulation in dental calculus of smokers: a pilot inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Various trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, may exist in dental calculus. However, the effect of environmental factors on heavy metal composition of dental calculus is unknown. Smoking is a major environmental source for chronic toxic heavy metal exposition. The aim of this study is to compare toxic heavy metal… (More)
DOI: 10.1111/jre.12371

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