High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR.

  title={High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR.},
  author={Michael Piatak and Michael S. Saag and L Yang and Stephen J. Clark and John C Kappes and Kin-chun Luk and Beatrice H. Hahn and George M. Shaw and Jeffrey D. Lifson},
  volume={259 5102},
Quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) methods were used to quantify virion-associated human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma from 66 patients with Centers for Disease Control stage I to IVC1 infection. HIV-1 RNA, ranging from 100 to nearly 22,000,000 copies per milliliter of plasma (corresponding to 50 to 11,000,000 virions per milliliter), was readily quantified in all subjects, was significantly associated with disease stage and CD4+ T cell counts, and… 

Validation of a quantitative RNA PCR assay for HIV‐1 in human plasma

The high precision and reproducibility of this quantitative RNA PCR assay provide an enhanced means of evaluating therapeutic drug regimens for HIV‐1.

Quantitative molecular monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity during therapy with specific antiretroviral compounds

Methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids present in small amounts in biological samples were applied to the direct monitoring of specific anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy and circulating viral variants bearing at least two mutations compatible with azidothymidine or ddI resistance were detectable in patients.

Clinical evaluation of branched DNA signal amplification for quantifying HIV type 1 in human plasma.

  • Y. CaoD. Ho M. Saag
  • Biology, Medicine
    AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • 1995
The close quantitative correlation between bDNA and QC-PCR results, and their significant association with other viral markers and CD4+ counts, support the use of plasma viral RNA measurement in HIV-1 clinical trials.

Quantification of infectious HIV-1 plasma viral load using a boosted in vitro infection protocol.

Multicenter evaluation of quantification methods for plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

It is demonstrated that several HIV-1 RNA quantitative assays are ready for use in clinical trials and were sufficiently reproducible so that an empiric 4-fold change could be viewed as significant.

Quantification of low levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA in P24 antigen-negative, asymptomatic, HIV-positive patients by PCR

The results indicate that PCR with nested primers may be useful for assessing the changes in viremia in HIV-positive patients with low viral load undergoing antiviral therapy.

Plasma virus load evaluation in relation to disease progression in HIV-infected children.

It is concluded that high plasma HIV RNA in infancy is associated with increased mortality, and baseline VL in infants classified as RPs was higher than that of NRPs, although the difference was not statistically significant.

Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA and RNA by a novel internally controlled PCR assay

A novel internally controlled PCR assay was developed to accurately quantitate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA and RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma and should be useful in monitoring HIV-1 RNA levels both in natural history studies and in clinical trials of antiretroviral agents.

Quantitation of Viremia and Determination of Drug Resistance in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

The use of an internal quantitation standard (IQS) monitors the efficiency of extraction and amplification and eliminates the need for a standard curve, and genotypic assays provide sequencing information that can be used to identify known resistance codons.

Quantitative analysis of viral burden in tissues from adults and children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection assessed by polymerase chain reaction.

The data suggest that although lymph nodes represent the main site for HIV-1 infection and replication, the level of circulating viral burden may not be solely determined by the magnitude of active HIV- 1 replication in lymph nodes.



Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

The rapid and spontaneous decline in the viral load suggests an effective immune response in the host that, if understood, may be used to combat AIDS.

Quantitation of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA by competitive polymerase chain reaction.

This method offers a sensitive assay with a broad dynamic range for monitoring HIV-1 activity in the plasma of AIDS patients and may provide a useful tool for assessing the effects of antiretroviral therapy.

Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons.

The levels of HIV-1 in plasma and PBMC are much higher than previous estimates, raising the possibility that the direct cytopathic effect of this retrovirus alone may be sufficient to explain much of the pathogenesis of AIDS.

Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

It is concluded that plasma viremia is a more sensitive virologic marker of the clinical stage of HIV infection and viral replication than the presence of p24 antigen or antibody in plasma.

High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection.

Primary, symptomatic HIV-1 infection is associated with high titers of cytopathic, replication-competent viral strains, and during such infection potential infectivity is enhanced.

HIV‐1 viral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seroconverters and long‐term infected individuals

HIV-1 copy numbers were determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR-aided template titration assay (PATTY), which utilizes an internal plasmid control DNA, which is amplified within the same tube and using the same primers as the PBMC target DNA.

Absolute quantitation of viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection by competitive reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction

A competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for the quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia was developed and optimized and proved to be useful in the quantitative assay of HIV-1-specific cellular transcripts and proviral DNA sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using competitor DNA.

Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I-Specific T Helper Cell Responses before Detection of Infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Serum Antibodies

Results, based on the longitudinal study of one individual, showed that the Th cell tests can reveal exposure to HIV-1 antigens several months before evidence of viral infection is detected, even by PCR.

Viral DNA and mRNA expression correlate with the stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in humans: evidence for viral replication in all stages of HIV disease

The data show that the natural history of HIV infection is associated with a shift in the balance of viral expression favoring the production of genomic RNA without a preceding period of true viral latency.