High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves refractory depression by influencing catecholamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factors.

  title={High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves refractory depression by influencing catecholamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factors.},
  author={Toru Yukimasa and Reiji Yoshimura and Akira Tamagawa and Takenori Uozumi and Koji Shinkai and Nobuhisa Ueda and Sadatoshi Tsuji and Jun Nakamura},
  volume={39 2},
INTRODUCTION Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive and easily tolerated method of altering cortical physiology. To date, numerous open and sham controlled clinical trials have explored the antidepressant potential of rTMS. In the present study, we investigated clinical trials of high-frequency rTMS (20 Hz) for treatment of refractory depression, and also examined the effect of rTMS on plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites and brain-derived neurotropic factor… 

Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Patients with Depression

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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and decreases interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in elderly patients with refractory depression

It is suggested that rTMS may increase BDNF and decrease IL-1β and TNF-α serum levels in elderly patients with refractory depression, and positively correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 scores.