High-flux haemodialysis had little or no effect on all-cause mortality (10 trials, 2915 participants; relative risk 0.95, 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.04) or death due to infection (3 trials, 2547 participants; RR, 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.14) (Fig. 1). There was evidence that high-flux haemodialysis reduced cardiovascular mortality (5 trials, 2612 participants; RR, 0.83, 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99). On average, treating 100 patients with high-flux haemodialysis for 2 years did not prevent death overall but may prevent 3 cardiovascularrelated deaths (95% CI, 0 to 6). Information was scant for quality of life, hospitalisation, and complications of accumulating beta-2-microglobulin including carpal tunnel syndrome and arthropathy, and adverse events. Planned analyses to investigate how differences in patient characteristics, dialysis delivery, or study design affected results were not possible due to the small number of studies contributing data.