NMR studies of changes in subcellular water compartmentation in parenchyma apple tissue during drying and freezing
- Brian P. Hills, Benoit Remigereau
The experimental conditions required for discrimination of various types of tissue in fruits of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa) at high fields (ca. 7 T) have been investigated. In marked contrast to soft fruits of other species, from which informative images have been derived at high fields using a variety of pulse sequences and acquisition parameters, appreciable image intensities from parenchymal and vascular tissues in healthy strawberry fruits were obtained only with a spin-echo imaging sequence using large sweep widths (ca. 100,000 Hz), and consequently small values for TE ( < 5 ms), indicating predominantly short T2 values for these tissues. Damage caused by infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is readily seen as a result of a large increase in T2 in the infected tissue, whereas ripening processes appear to be characterized primarily by small variations in the T2-weighted contrast and in the relative magnitudes of T1 between vascular and parenchymal tissue. In addition, it was possible selectively to enhance the contributions to images from the achenes ("seeds") by using very short relaxation delays, thereby enhancing T1-dominated contrast mechanisms.