High-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources: An Upper bound

  title={High-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources: An Upper bound},
  author={Eli Waxman and John N. Bahcall},
  journal={Physical Review D},
We show that cosmic-ray observations set a model-independent upper bound of ${E}_{\ensuremath{\nu}}^{2}{\ensuremath{\Phi}}_{\ensuremath{\nu}}l2\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{\ensuremath{-}8}{\mathrm{G}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{V}/\mathrm{c}\mathrm{m}}^{2}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{}\mathrm{sr}$ to the intensity of high-energy neutrinos produced by photo-meson (or $p\ensuremath{-}p)$ interactions in sources of size not much larger than the proton photo-meson (or $p\ensuremath{-}p)$ mean-free… 

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