Monolayers of octadecylphosphonic acid were self-assembled on silicon substrates sputter coated with aluminum. Patterning of the self-assembled monolayer was achieved by high-energy electron (50 kV) illumination using an electron beam lithography tool. The change in chemical composition of the exposed monolayer was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry over an area of 100 x 100 microm2. The electron dose required to fully expose the SAM was found to be about 6 mC/cm2. Gratings were exposed with line widths from 10 microm to 100 nm. The resulting patterns were imaged using friction force microscopy. It was found that the minimum line width is limited to ca. 100 nm by the patterning resolution. The pattern resolution achieved, ca. 40 nm, is equal to the grain size of the sputter-coated aluminum layer, and the possibility that the grain size limits the pattern resolution is discussed.