High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars.

  title={High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars.},
  author={John A. Smith and Xinzhao Chu},
  journal={Applied optics},
  volume={54 11},
A high-efficiency lidar receiver architecture that emphasizes boosting the receiver collection efficiency of resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars has opened up new avenues of study for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere-extended (MLT-X) at sites in Boulder, Colorado, USA, and Cerro Pachón, Chile. Described in this work are in-depth considerations in the design, construction, and alignment of Na Doppler lidar receivers that have yielded signal levels typically 5-10 times higher per power… 
A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrowband Fe Doppler (372 nm) lidar from its existing measurement
Exploration of Whole Atmosphere Lidar: Mach-zehnder Receiver to Extend Fe Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements from the Thermosphere to the Ground
A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrowband Fe Doppler (372 nm) lidar from its existing measurement
Investigation of a field-widened Mach-Zehnder receiver to extend Fe Doppler lidar wind measurements from the thermosphere to the ground.
The use of multiple transmitted frequencies can yield a wind measurement wherein the accuracy is insensitive to the optical imperfection and misalignment of the MZI or any other factor that affects the contrast, though the precision is still impacted by the fringe contrast.
Lidar Technology Based on Fiber System and its Application
The sodium atom existed in the metal layer of the earth’s atmosphere has a high atomic number density and a large scattering cross section. Sodium layer can act as a good tracer for atmospheric
Simultaneous detection of the Ca and Ca+ layers by a dual-wavelength tunable lidar system.
Three nights of preliminary simultaneous observations of Ca and Ca+ layers are reported; the diversity of these observations begs for more systematic observations and challenging interpretations in terms of Ca processes in the ionosphere and illustrates the effectiveness of this system for aeronomy and space physics studies.
Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol and Cloud Using a Polarized Micropulse Lidar in Xi’an, China
A polarized micropulse lidar (P-MPL) employing a pulsed laser at 532 nm was developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences).
Gravity Wave and Turbulence Transport in the Mesopause Region
Vertical transport due to dissipating gravity waves and turbulence in the mesopause region (85-100 km) are analyzed with observational data obtained from a narrow-band sodium wind/temperature lidar
Development of a solid-state sodium Doppler lidar using an all-fiber-coupled injection seeding unit for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the mesopause region.
A solid-state sodium (Na) Doppler lidar developed at YanQing Station, Beijing, China aiming to simultaneous wind and temperature measurement of mesopause region was reported, enabling a robust, all-fiber-coupled design for seeding laser unit, absolute laser frequency locking, and cyclic three-frequency switching necessary for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements.
Photomultiplier tube calibration based on Na lidar observation and its effect on heat flux bias.
Using the measurements made by Na lidar at the Andes Lidar Observatory with Hamamatsu PMTs, a calibration procedure is developed to remove PMT correction errors from laboratory measurements, demonstrating that the heat flux bias can be removed.
First Na lidar measurements of turbulence heat flux, thermal diffusivity, and energy dissipation rate in the mesopause region
Turbulence is ubiquitous in the mesopause region, where the atmospheric stability is low and wave breaking is frequent. Measuring turbulence is challenging in this region and is traditionally done by


Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique.
  • J. McKay
  • Physics, Environmental Science
    Applied optics
  • 1998
Analytic models, based on a convolution of a Fabry-Perot etalon transfer function with a Gaussian spectral source, are developed for the shot-noise-limited measurement precision of Doppler wind
Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements
Na atoms residing in the 80-110 km altitude region can be used to probe the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure (hfs) of their D2 resonance transition by ground-based lidar and hence to deduce
Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars.
A study that identifies a photomultiplier tube, divider networks, and gating circuitry for use in the current detection mode and shows no tendency toward overlinearity caused by either space charge effects or induced divider-network voltage changes is aimed at optimizing the performance in a nadir-looking airborne UV differential absorption lidar.
Na double-edge magneto-optic filter for Na lidar profiling of wind and temperature in the lower atmosphere.
Lidar simulations, metrics, and error analyses show that simultaneous wind and temperature measurements are feasible in the altitude range of 20-50 km using the hot-cell filter and reasonable Na lidar parameters.
A large‐aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies
High‐resolution observations of the density structure of atomic sodium in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere, using a large‐aperture lidar system, reveal features of this dynamic region in
A new lidar campaign is ongoing at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica with an Fe Boltzmann lidar since December 2010. The data have extended resonance fluorescence lidar measurements into the
Methods for optical adjustment in lidar systems.
A novel method, to the knowledge, is presented for the receiving telescope adjustment, which is carried out mainly with a commercial laser plummet, leading to continuous retrieval of the iron density profiles with fine spatiotemporal resolution.
Sodium resonance fluorescence lidar applications in atmospheric science and astronomy
The mesospheric Na layer is generally confined to the region between 80 and 110 km, with a peak near the mesopause where the density ranges from about 10/sup 3/-10/sup 4/ cm/sup -3/. The layer is an
Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar.
This edge filter with a multi-frequency lidar concept can be applied to other direct-detection Doppler lidars for profiling both wind and temperature simultaneously from the lower to the upper atmosphere.
Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars.
Analysis of saturation effects in lidar systems reveals that the saturation effects can be characterized by two parameters: the saturation time tau(s) and the rms laser linewidth Deltaomega(rms).