High Sensitive Multi Sensor and Analysis Systems for Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis at Gears

Abstract

Modern high performance transmissions in fabrication and energy industries more and more have to satisfy high requirements concerning their nominal load, running properties and operational stability. Helical gears with small modules are usually used to meet these demands. To assure an undisturbed operation, to avoid unplanned downtimes and consequential damages of high performance transmissions a condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is useful. The running properties, rate of wear and the development of damages of precision forged and conventional helical gear wheels are analyzed at the IW in a special transmission test bench. The condition monitoring of the test bench is done by vibration and acoustic emission measurements which allow the actual description of the running properties and the development of damages. For the early detection of damages like pitting or cracks at the tooth root, analysis techniques in time and frequency domain and the wavelet analysis have been adapted. Because of the higher resolution in the time domain the wavelet analysis is more suitable for the analysis of frequency components caused by very short excitations, like the beginning of pitting and the propagation of cracks, than the Fast Fourier Transformation. Characteristic values in time and frequency domain (statistical time values, teeth mesh frequencies , cepstral values) are used for the development of a vector analysis to classify different faults. These characteristic values build up a multidimensional vector of the actual running condition which is compared to the vector of the reference condition. This analysis method allows a very early fault diagnosis and an estimation of the operational time remaining. The detection of cracks in the teeth of gear wheels by vibration analysis is possible with a quite small forecast lead time only. Therefore an eddy current probe has been developed which is located directly at the gear wheel. It can detect volumetric faults like the beginning of pitting or crack initiations in a very early stage during operation. Due to the increasing competition, companies are forced to introduce innovative production technologies rather than only relying on the evolution of established processes. The striving for economic production methods with short processing times as well as the risen requirements for properties of today's high performance components moves near-net-shape forming methods into the centre of attention. The goal of the Collaborative Research Centre 489 (SFB 489) is to develop new technological and logistical innovative as well as economic process chains, based on precision …

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