High-Resolution, Long-Slit Spectroscopy of VY Canis Majoris: The Evidence for Localized High Mass Loss Events

@article{Humphreys2004HighResolutionLS,
  title={High-Resolution, Long-Slit Spectroscopy of VY Canis Majoris: The Evidence for Localized High Mass Loss Events},
  author={Roberta M. Humphreys and Kris Davidson and Gerald T. Ruch and George Wallerstein},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  year={2004},
  volume={129},
  pages={492 - 510}
}
High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy of the OH/IR supergiant VY CMa and its circumstellar ejecta reveals evidence for high mass loss events from localized regions on the star occurring over the past 1000 yr. The reflected absorption lines and the extremely strong K I emission lines show a complex pattern of velocities in the ejecta. We show that the large, dusty northwest arc, expanding at ≈50 km s-1 with respect to the embedded star, is kinematically distinct from the surrounding… 
Massive dust clumps in the envelope of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris
The envelope of the red supergiant VY CMa has long been considered an extreme example of episodic mass loss that is possibly taking place in other cool and massive evolved stars. Recent
THE MORPHOLOGY OF IRC+10420’s CIRCUMSTELLAR EJECTA
Images of the circumstellar ejecta associated with the post-red supergiant IRC+10420 show a complex ejecta with visual evidence for episodic mass loss. In this paper, we describe the transverse
The Unexpected Spectrum of the Innermost Ejecta of the Red Hypergiant VY CMa
Hubble Space Telescope/STIS spectra of the small clumps and filaments closest to the central star in VY CMa reveal that the very strong K i emission and TiO and VO molecular emission, long thought to
The Three-Dimensional Morphology of VY Canis Majoris. I. The Kinematics of the Ejecta
Images of the complex circumstellar nebula associated with the famous red supergiant VY CMa show evidence for multiple and asymmetric mass-loss events over the past 1000 yr. Doppler velocities of the
NOEMA maps the CO J = 2 − 1 environment of the red supergiant $\mu$ Cep★
Red supergiant stars are surrounded by a gaseous and dusty circumstellar environment created by their mass loss which spreads heavy elements into the interstellar medium. The structure and the
CONSTRAINTS ON THE SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AGE OF A COOL HYPERGIANT: XMM-NEWTON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF VY CMa
The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass-loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven
The Circumstellar Environments of NML Cygni and the Cool Hypergiants
We present high-resolution HST WFPC2 images of compact nebulosity surrounding the cool M-type hypergiants NML Cyg, VX Sgr, and S Per. The powerful OH/IR source NML Cyg exhibits a peculiar bean-shaped
Thermal Emission in the Southwest Clump of VY CMa
We present high spatial resolution LBTI/NOMIC 9–12 μm images of VY CMa and its massive outflow feature, the Southwest (SW) Clump. Combined with high-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope
IMAGING THE COOL HYPERGIANT NML CYGNI'S DUSTY CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS
We present subarcsecond angular resolution, high-Strehl ratio mid-IR adaptive optics images of the powerful OH/IR source and cool hypergiant NML Cyg at 8.8, 9.8, and 11.7 μm. These images reveal once
The Three-Dimensional Morphology of VY Canis Majoris. II. Polarimetry and the Line-of-Sight Distribution of the Ejecta
We use imaging polarimetry taken with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera to explore the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES
Crossing the Yellow Void: Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Post-Red Supergiant IRC +10420 and Its Circumstellar Ejecta
IRC +10420 is one of the extreme hypergiant stars that define the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the H-R diagram. During their post–red supergiant evolution, these massive stars enter a
The Asymmetric Nebula Surrounding the Extreme Red Supergiant Vy Canis Majoris
We present HST/WFPC2 images plus ground-based infrared images and photometry of the very luminous OH/IR star VY Canis Majoris. Our WFPC2 data show a complex distribution of knots and filamentary arcs
Spatially extended K i λ7699 emission in the nebula of VY CMa: kinematics and geometry
Long-slit echelle spectra reveal bright extended emission from the K I λ7699 resonance line the reflection nebula surrounding the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. The central star has long
Modeling the Variable Chromosphere of α Orionis
A spectral analysis of the prototypical red supergiant star α Ori that is based on near-UV, optical, and near-IR high-dispersion spectra obtained between 1992 September and 1999 July with the Space
First Image of the Surface of a Star with the Hubble Space Telescope
A direct image of the surface of a star, Betelgeuse (=α Ori; M2 Iab), has been obtained with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. Images in two ~300 Å-wide bands centered at 2550
Spatially Resolved STIS Spectroscopy of α Orionis: Evidence for Nonradial Chromospheric Oscillation from Detailed Modeling
Four spatially resolved near-UV raster scans across the chromospheric disk of α Ori, obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal mean chromospheric
The yellow hypergiants
We list the main stellar data of known hypergiants and similarly luminous stars, and then concentrate on a review of the yellow hypergiants. These stars are post-red supergiants evolving along
THE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLES: ASTROPHYSICAL GEYSERS
Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose cuases are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called Luminous Blue Variables (LBV's), and their instability may
Detection of an orbiting gas disk in the Red Rectangle
We present interferometric maps of CO emission in the Red Rectangle, a well known protoplanetary nebula. The CO emission is found to arise from a relatively thin equatorial disk, extending about 5 ��
Spatially Resolved Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of the Chromosphere of α Orionis
Spatially resolved UV spectra of the supergiant α Orionis (Betelgeuse) obtained in 1995 March with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that
...
...