High-Performance Oligomeric Catholytes for Effective Macromolecular Separation in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

  title={High-Performance Oligomeric Catholytes for Effective Macromolecular Separation in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries},
  author={Koen H. Hendriks and Sophia G. Robinson and Miles N. Braten and Christo S. Sevov and Brett A. Helms and Matthew S. Sigman and Shelley D. Minteer and Melanie S. Sanford},
  journal={ACS Central Science},
  pages={189 - 196}
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) represent an attractive technology for energy storage from intermittent renewable sources. In these batteries, electrical energy is stored in and extracted from electrolyte solutions of redox-active molecules (termed catholytes and anolytes) that are passed through an electrochemical flow cell. To avoid battery self-discharge, the anolyte and catholyte solutions must be separated by a membrane in the flow cell. This membrane prevents crossover of the… Expand
69 Citations
A high-rate nonaqueous organic redox flow battery
Abstract Azobenzene (azoB) is a promising anode active material for nonaqueous redox flow battery (NARFB), but the battery performance assembled with azoB is rather poor. Here, we show that the rateExpand
PEGylation-Enabled Extended Cyclability of a Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery.
The high-performance of the PEGylated viologen validates the potential of thePEGylation strategy for enhanced organic material-based non-aqueous RFBs. Expand
A Stable Organo-Aluminum Analyte Enables Multi-Electron Storage for a Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery.
An organoaluminum analyte, [(I2P-)2Al]+, in which four electrons can be stored on organic ligands, and for which charging and discharging cycles performed in a symmetric nonaqueous RFB configuration remain stable for over 100 cycles at 70% state of charge and 97% Coulombic efficiency is reported. Expand
Realization of an Asymmetric Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Through Molecular Design to Minimize Active Species Crossover and Decomposition.
A mechanism-based approach to organic electrolytes for non-aqueous redox flow batteries with a novel anolyte/catholyte pair that can be cycled in an AEM-separated asymmetric RFB for 96 h with >95% capacity retention at an open circuit voltage of 1.57 V. Expand
Progress in the Design of Polyoxovanadate-Alkoxides as Charge Carriers for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries
ABSTRACT Innovation in the development of electrochemical energy storage methods is essential if these technologies are to meet the variable needs of the electrical grid. Nonaqueous redox flowExpand
Mechanism-Based Design of a High-Potential Catholyte Enables a 3.2 V All-Organic Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery.
A combination of computations, chemical synthesis, and mechanistic analysis is used to develop thioether-substituted cyclopropenium derivatives as high potential electrolytes for nonaqueous RFBs that exhibit redox potentials that are 470-500 mV higher than those of known electrolytes. Expand
Membranes in non-aqueous redox flow battery: A review
  • Jiashu Yuan, Zheng-Ze Pan, +4 authors Yongdan Li
  • Materials Science
  • Journal of Power Sources
  • 2021
Abstract Redox flow battery (RFB) is promising in grid-scale energy storage, and potentially applicable for facilitating the harvest of the intermittent renewable power sources, like wind and solar,Expand
Recent advancements in rational design of non-aqueous organic redox flow batteries
In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art advancements made in organic redox flow batteries (ORFBs) with special emphasis on non-aqueous (NAq) electrolytes. ORFBs utilize earth-abundant andExpand
Electrolyte Lifetime in Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries: A Critical Review.
It is found that simple galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling is inadequate for assessing capacity fade when fade rates are low or extremely low and refining methods to include potential holds for accurately assessing molecular lifetimes under such circumstances are recommended. Expand
Design Rules for Membranes from Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity for Crossover-free Aqueous Electrochemical Devices
Summary Here, we lay the design rules for linking microporous polymer membrane architecture and pore chemistry to membrane stability, conductivity, and transport selectivity in aqueous electrolytesExpand


Impact of redox-active polymer molecular weight on the electrochemical properties and transport across porous separators in nonaqueous solvents.
The synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and transport properties of redox-active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) with molecular weights between 21 and 318 kDa are reported, suggesting the adequacy of the Stokes-Einstein formalism to describe RAPs. Expand
Macromolecular Design Strategies for Preventing Active-Material Crossover in Non-Aqueous All-Organic Redox-Flow Batteries.
It is shown that active-species crossover is arrested by scaling the membranes' pore size to molecular dimensions and in turn increasing the size of the active material above the membrane's pore-size exclusion limit, which exceeds performance targets recently set forth by the battery industry. Expand
Redox Active Polymers as Soluble Nanomaterials for Energy Storage.
This Account highlights redox active polymers and related polymer colloids as soluble nanoscopic energy storing units that enable the simple but powerful size-exclusion concept for NRFBs and finds that RAP solutions store energy efficiently and reversibly while offering chemical modularity and size versatility. Expand
A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising in pursuit of high energy density storage systems owing to the broad voltage windows (>2 V) but currently are facing key challenges such as limitedExpand
High current density, long duration cycling of soluble organic active species for non-aqueous redox flow batteries
Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) employing redox-active organic molecules show promise to meet requirements for grid energy storage. Here, we combine the rational design of organicExpand
A review of current developments in non-aqueous redox flow batteries: characterization of their membranes for design perspective
The non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the emerging large-scale energy storage systems that may overcome the low energy density limited by breakdown of water at a high voltage in aqueousExpand
Multielectron Cycling of a Low-Potential Anolyte in Alkali Metal Electrolytes for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries
Recent efforts have led to the design of new anolytes for nonaqueous flow batteries that exhibit reversible redox couples at low potentials. However, these molecules generally cycle through just aExpand
Physical Organic Approach to Persistent, Cyclable, Low-Potential Electrolytes for Flow Battery Applications.
A new approach to electrolyte design is reported that uses physical organic tools for the predictive targeting of electrolytes that possess this combination of properties and applies this approach to the identification of a new pyridinium-based anolyte that undergoes 1e- electrochemical charge-discharge cycling at low potential to a 95% state-of-charge without detectable capacity loss after 200 cycles. Expand
A high-performance all-metallocene-based, non-aqueous redox flow battery
Here, a class of organometallic compounds, metallocenes, are explored to serve as both catholyte and anolyte redox species for non-aqueous lithium-based redox flow battery (Li-RFB) applications. TheExpand
Annulated Dialkoxybenzenes as Catholyte Materials for Non-aqueous Redox Flow Batteries: Achieving High Chemical Stability through Bicyclic Substitution
1,4-Dimethoxybenzene derivatives are materials of choice for use as catholytes in non-aqueous redox flow batteries, as they exhibit high open-circuit potentials and excellent electrochemicalExpand