High-Performance Back-Illuminated Three-Dimensional Stacked Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Implemented in 45-nm CMOS Technology

  title={High-Performance Back-Illuminated Three-Dimensional Stacked Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Implemented in 45-nm CMOS Technology},
  author={Myung-Jae Lee and A. Ximenes and P. Padmanabhan and Tzu-Jui Wang and Kuo-Chin Huang and Y. Yamashita and D. Yaung and E. Charbon},
  journal={IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics},
We present a high-performance back-illuminated three-dimensional stacked single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD), which is implemented in 45-nm CMOS technology for the first time. The SPAD is based on a P+/Deep N-well junction with a circular shape, for which N-well is intentionally excluded to achieve a wide depletion region, thus enabling lower tunneling noise and better timing jitter as well as a higher photon detection efficiency and a wider spectrum. In order to prevent premature edge… Expand
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