High Accurate Howland Current Source: Output Constraints Analysis

  title={High Accurate Howland Current Source: Output Constraints Analysis},
  author={Pedro Bertemes-Filho and Alexandre Felipe and V. C. Vincence},
Howland circuits have been widely used as powerful source for exciting tissue over a wide frequency range. When a Howland source is designed, the components are chosen so that the designed source has the desired characteristics. However, the operational amplifier limitations and resistor tolerances cause undesired behaviors. This work proposes to take into account the influence of the random distribution of the resistors in the modified Howland circuit over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10… CONTINUE READING


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