Hidden biodiversity of the extremophilic Cyanidiales red algae

  title={Hidden biodiversity of the extremophilic Cyanidiales red algae},
  author={Claudia Ciniglia and Hwan Su Yoon and Antonino Pollio and Gabriele Pinto and Debashish Bhattacharya},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
The Cyanidiales is a group of asexual, unicellular red algae, which thrive in acidic and high temperature conditions around hot springs. These unicellular taxa have a relatively simple morphology and are currently classified into three genera, Cyanidium, Cyanidioschyzon and Galdieria. Little is known, however, about the biodiversity of Cyanidiales, their population structure and their phylogenetic relationships. Here we used a taxonomically broadly sampled three‐gene data set of plastid… 

Cyanidiales: Evolution and Habitats

Studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have started to reveal that both gene losses and horizontal gene transfer from environmental prokaryotes have contributed to the emergence and diversification of Cyanidiales and their adaptation to respective habitats.

The Cyanidiales: Ecology, Biodiversity, and Biogeography

In this chapter, the ecology, biodiversity, and biogeography of these fascinating eukaryotic extremophiles are commented on, attempting to assimilate recent, important developments in the authors' understanding of these algae.

Cyanidiales diversity in Yellowstone National Park

Direct microscopic counts and viable counts from soil samples collected along a moisture gradient were positively correlated with moisture content, providing the first in situ evidence that gravimetric moisture is an important environmental parameter controlling distribution of these algae.

Biogeographic and Phylogenetic Diversity of Thermoacidophilic Cyanidiales in Yellowstone National Park, Japan, and New Zealand

The phylogenetic diversity of culture isolates of the Cyanidiales from habitats throughout Yellowstone National Park, three areas in Japan, and seven regions in New Zealand was examined by using the chloroplast RuBisCO large subunit gene (rbcL) and the 18S rRNA gene.

Establishment of endolithic populations of extremophilic Cyanidiales (Rhodophyta)

This study conducted an environmental PCR survey of another extreme environment in Tuscany, Italy and contrasted Cyanidiales population structure at endolithic and interlithic habitats in Naples and TuscANY to provide important data regarding population structure in extreme endolithic environments and insights into how Cyanidials may be established in and adapt to these hostile environments.

Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Cyanidiococcus gen. nov., A New Extremophilic Red Algal Genus Sister to Cyanidioschyzon (Cyanidioschyzonaceae, Rhodophyta)

This strain is proposed to be a new genus and species, Cyanidiococcus yangmingshanensis, based on the genomic, morphological, and physiological traits, and it is suggested that the rbcL sequences of “G. maxima” deposited in GenBank correspond to misidentified isolates.

Analysis of rbcL sequences reveals the global biodiversity, community structure, and biogeographical pattern of thermoacidophilic red algae (Cyanidiales)

This study is the first examination of the global species diversity and biogeographic affinity of cyanidia and the influence of microhabitat type on Cyanidiales diversity and highlights intriguing questions for future ecological research.

A Genomic and Phylogenetic Perspective on Endosymbiosis and Algal Origin

Algal plastid diversity is examined using phylogenetic and genomic methods and endosymbiosis is shown to be a major force in algal evolution, particularly on the evolution of targeting signals that facilitate the import of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic proteins into the plastids.

Evolutionary History and Taxonomy of Red Algae

The red algae are unique among eukaryotes in lacking both flagella and centrioles during their entire life cycle, and the monophyly of red algae is strongly supported by nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial gene trees.

Cyanidiophyceae in Iceland: plastid rbcL gene elucidates origin and dispersal of extremophilic Galdieria sulphuraria and G. maxima (Galdieriaceae, Rhodophyta)

On the basis of network analysis of rbcL haplotypes, it is likely that the southwestern region of Iceland is the diversity center of both G. sulphuraria and G. maxima from northeastern Asia.



Biogeography of the Cyanidiaceae (Rhodophyta) based on 18S ribosomal RNA sequence data

Comparison of 18S sequences from thermo-acidophilic red algae indicates that even within a seemingly homogeneous group of eukaryotic organisms the limits of phylogenetic analysis may be reached.

The single, ancient origin of chromist plastids

A taxonomically diverse group of chlorophyll c2-containing protists comprising cryptophyte, haptophyte and stramenopiles algae (Chromista) share a common plastid that most likely arose from a single, ancient secondary endosymbiosis involving a red alga, consistent with Chromista monophyly and implicates secondary endOSymbiotic as an important force in generating eukaryotic biodiversity.

Analyses of ribosomal RNA sequences from glaucocystophyte cyanelles provide new insights into the evolutionary relationships of plastids

The phylogenetic analyses show that the cyanelles of C. paradoxa, G. nostochinearum, and G. wittrockiana form a distinct evolutionary lineage; these cyanelle presumably share a monophyletic origin and are interpreted as supporting a near-simultaneous radiation of cyaneles and green and nongreen plastids.

The Genus Cyanidium

TheName Cyanidium caldarium was first used by Geitler and Ruttner (1936) the same year that Copeland described the organism as Pluto, but despite the euphony of the latter name, the name Cyanidium has taken precedent.

Revision of Comparative Traits for the Acido- and Thermophilic Red Algae Cyanidium and Galdieria

This would imply that the algal population of Iceland survived several ice ages, and it is not clear how new habitats could be colonized by the two genera or how an exchange between separate populations might be possible.

Rubisco genes indicate a close phylogenetic relation between the plastids of Chromophyta and Rhodophyta

The data suggest that the plastids of Chromophyta and Cryptophyta have originated from endosymbiotic unicellular red algae and red and brown algal Rubiscos show a significantly higher degree of homology to that from a hydrogen bacterium than to those from cyanobacteria.

Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the Bangiophycidae (Rhodophyta) and the origin of secondary plastids.

The results support the independent origins of these secondary algal plastids from different members of the Bangiophycidae and are consistent with a monophyletic origin of the Florideophycaceae, which form a sister-group to the Bangia.

A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes.

An ancient (late Paleoproterozoic) origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes with the primary endosymbiosis that gave rise to the first alga having occurred after the split of the Plantae from the opisthokonts sometime before 1,558 MYA is supported.

Revision of Cyanidium caldarium. Three species of acidophilic algae

A systematic revision of three unicellular eucaryotic algae, often living in mixed population in thermal acidic environment, finds that the family Galdieriaceae is instituted for the first of these algae, whereas the other two algae are included in the family Cyanidiaceae Geitler emend.

Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity

35 full sequences of the small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA gene derived from a picoplanktonic assemblage collected at a depth of 75 m in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are analysed and show that there is a high diversity of picoeukaryotes.