Hexapod Origins: Monophyletic or Paraphyletic?

  title={Hexapod Origins: Monophyletic or Paraphyletic?},
  author={Francesco Nardi and Giacomo Spinsanti and Jeffrey L. Boore and Antonio Carapelli and Romano Dallai and Francesco Frati},
  pages={1887 - 1889}
Recent morphological and molecular evidence has changed interpretations of arthropod phylogeny and evolution. Here we compare complete mitochondrial genomes to show that Collembola, a wingless group traditionally considered as basal to all insects, appears instead to constitute a separate evolutionary lineage that branched much earlier than the separation of many crustaceans and insects and independently adapted to life on land. Therefore, the taxon Hexapoda, as commonly defined to include all… 

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Gen arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods.

The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny

Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacstraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

Phylogeny of the Brachystomellidae (Collembola) — were the mandibles ancestrally absent and did they re‐appear in this family?

A phylogenetic study was carried out on the family Brachystomellidae, which was found to be monophyletic, and showed that mandibles were ancestrally absent in this group and then re‐appeared later in Probrachystomllides nicolaii.

Of mites and millipedes: Recent progress in resolving the base of the arthropod tree

  • J. CaravasM. Friedrich
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2010
The progress, problems, and prospects of arriving at the final arthropod tree are discussed.

The phylogenetic position of early hexapod lineages: morphological data contradict molecular data

It appears that in the present state of the analytical strategies, hypotheses concerning arthropod phylogenies obtained from morphological and developmental criteria and combined analyses involving molecular and morphological data provide more reliable results than those generated by molecular information alone.

Organization of the Mitochondrial Genome of Mantis Shrimp Pseudosquilla ciliata (Crustacea: Stomatopoda)

The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudosquillaciliata (Crustacea, Stomatopoda), including all protein-coding genes and all but one of the transfer RNAs, was determined, confirming a basal position of Stom atopoda among Eumalacostraca.

Re-Evaluating the Internal Phylogenetic Relationships of Collembola by Means of Mitogenome Data

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The complete mitogenome of Plator insolens (Araneae: Trochanteriidae) with phylogenetic implication

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Gene translocation links insects and crustaceans

A derived gene rearrangement common to insects and crustaceans but absent in the other arthropod groups is reported, suggesting an insect-crustacean evolutionary lineage that is separate from those leading to myriapods and chelicerates.

The Early Radiation and Relationships of the Major Arthropod Groups

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Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of myriapods

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Mitochondrial Genes Collectively Suggest the Paraphyly of Crustacea with Respect to Insecta

A phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the seven corresponding polypeptides supports a sister-taxon status for mollusks–annelid and arthropods and suggests that crustaceans are paraphyletic with respect to insects.

A Review of Arthropod Phylogeny: New Data Based on Ribosomal DNA Sequences and Direct Character Optimization

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Molecular phylogeny of the apterygotan insects based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes

A fairly high support for the monophyly of the orders Diplura and Zygentoma is obtained in the 12S analysis, where the Ellipura and the Entognatha form monophyletic assemblages.

The phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa of apterygote hexapods

The phylogeny of the basal hexapods, the so‐called apterygote insects, was studied using parsimony analysis procedures and strongly support the monophyly of several orders and of two groupings.

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the basal hexapod Tetrodontophora bielanensis: evidence for heteroplasmy and tRNA translocations.

The complete 15,455-nt mitochondrial DNA sequence of the springtail Tetrodontophora bielanensis (Arthropoda, Hexapoda, Collembola), which shows the well-known A+T bias typical of insect mtDNA, and two tRNA translocations were found which were unprecedented among Arthropoda.

Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein–encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade

  • J. ShultzJ. C. Regier
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
Results from maximum–parsimony and maximum–likelihood analyses strongly supported the existence of a Crustacea+ Hexapoda clade (Pancrustacea) over a Myriapoda + Hexapod clade(s) (Atelocerata) and the apparent incompatibility between the molecule–based Pancrustacea hypothesis and morphology–based AtelOCerata hypothesis is discussed.