Hexagonal comb cells of honeybees are not produced via a liquid equilibrium process

@article{Bauer2012HexagonalCC,
  title={Hexagonal comb cells of honeybees are not produced via a liquid equilibrium process},
  author={Danielle Bauer and Kaspar Bienefeld},
  journal={Naturwissenschaften},
  year={2012},
  volume={100},
  pages={45-49}
}
The nests of European honeybees (Apis mellifera) are organised into wax combs that contain many cells with a hexagonal structure. Many previous studies on comb-building behaviour have been made in order to understand how bees produce this geometrical structure; however, it still remains a mystery. Direct construction of hexagons by bees was suggested previously, while a recent hypothesis postulated the self-organised construction of hexagonal comb cell arrays; however, infrared and… 

Figures from this paper

The hexagonal shape of the honeycomb cells depends on the construction behavior of bees
TLDR
This work suggests that the observed geometry can arise only if isodiametric cells are previously arranged in a way that each one is surrounded by six other similar cells, and proposes a possible behavioral rule ultimately accounting for the hexagonal shape of bee cells.
Cognitive Aspects of Comb-Building in the Honeybee?
TLDR
The 2-century old and now largely forgotten work by François Huber is explored, where glass screens were placed between an expanding comb construction and the intended target wall, and bees took corrective action before reaching the glass obstacle, and altered the ongoing construction so as to reach the nearest wooden wall.
Evaluating and Comparing the Natural Cell Structure and Dimensions of Honey Bee Comb Cells of Chinese Bee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Italian Bee, Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
TLDR
This study revealed unique differences in the structure and function of comb cells and showed that honey bees design their cells with precise engineering to increase storage capacity, and to create adequate growing room for their brood.
Imperfect comb construction reveals the architectural abilities of honeybees
TLDR
This paper quantified building challenges that bees face during natural construction and the methods they use to solve them, and found that workers preemptively change their building behavior in constrained geometries to make space for larger hexagonal cells, that irregular cell shapes come in regular combinations, and that bees change both tilt, size, and number of walls to meet different building challenges.
Self-organization at the first stage of honeycomb construction: Analysis of an attachment-excavation model
TLDR
An agent-based model, the attachment-excavation model, is proposed, in which worker honeybees are classified into attachers who secrete and attach wax, and excavators who excise the attached wax, which concludes that honeybees utilize self-organization to achieve complexity during the first stage of honeycomb construction.
Structure of Fejes Tóth cells in natural honey bee combs
TLDR
An analysis of the structure of Fejes Tóth cells in the natural combs of the Chinese bee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and the Italian bee,Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymanoptera): Apidae found no significant differences in the diameter and depth of FeJes Tâth cells and three-rhombus cells.
The bee Tetragonula builds its comb like a crystal
TLDR
It is shown that the same excitable-medium dynamics governs both crystal nucleation and growth and comb construction in Tetragonula, so that a minimal coupled-map lattice model based on crystal growth explains how these bees produce the structures seen in their bee combs.
Standard methods for Apis mellifera beeswax research
TLDR
This article provides a detailed description of the methods for investigating wax scales, comb construction and growth pattern, cell properties, chemical composition, and chemical composition of beeswax using different analytical tools, as well as the analytical procedures for provenancing Beeswax and beeswAX-derived compounds based on the hydrogen isotope ratio (IRMS).
Social wasps repair emergent topological defects
TLDR
It is shown that Polistes wattii, an open nesting paper wasp species, builds planar hexagonal structures, and that their nests exhibit short-range hexagonal order but no long-range order akin to amorphous materials.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 17 REFERENCES
The cell bases of honeybee combs
TLDR
A re-examination of the cell bases of freshly drawn comb, old comb, and the silk residues of wax-extracted old combs prepared from a silicone-based moulding rubber preparation showed that three perfect rhomboids are seen to form the trihedral pyramid in the cell base.
Honeybee combs: construction through a liquid equilibrium process?
TLDR
It is shown that honeybees neither have to measure nor construct the highly regular structures of a honeycomb, and that the observed pattern of combs can be parsimoniously explained by wax flowing in liquid equilibrium.
The conversion of wax scales into comb wax by African honeybees
TLDR
The effects of mandibulation by the honeybees are to transform the texturally anisotropic scale into planar isotropic comb to form comb wax, which has twice the stiffness and is less distensible than the former.
Comb Building in Social Wasps: Self-organization and Stigmergic Script
TLDR
A self-organization model is presented here to demonstrate how the comb structure development arises from the dynamic interactions between wasps and the previously constructed comb.
The thermal properties of beeswaxes: unexpected findings
TLDR
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that thermal phase changes in wax are initiated at substantially lower temperatures than visually observed melting points, indicating that the onset of melting, melting range and heat of fusion of beeswaxes varied significantly among tribes of social bees (Bombini, Meliponini, Apini).
Honeybee Colony Thermoregulation – Regulatory Mechanisms and Contribution of Individuals in Dependence on Age, Location and Thermal Stress
TLDR
The findings show that thermal homeostasis of honeybee colonies is achieved by a combination of active and passive processes and the differential individual endothermic and behavioral reactions sum up to an integrated action of the honeybee colony as a superorganism.
The Buzz about Bees: Biology of a Superorganism
TLDR
The author describes every known aspect of sociality in a honey bee colony, from communication through to longevity, as well as hive maintenance and the contribution of its physical structure, such as the comb, to the superorganism.
Comb Construction by the African Honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii
Cell size discrimination by A. m. adansonii was investigated using beeswax foundation having a range of cell sizes from 170 to 1022 cells/dm2. Different construction solutions and different working
ÜBER DIE FÄHIGKEIT DER BIENENKÖNIGIN (APIS MELLIFICA L.) ZWISCHEN ARBEITERINNEN-UND DROHNENZELLEN ZU UNTERSCHEIDEN
TLDR
HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research documents, whether they are published or not, for teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.
Sinnesphysiologische Leistungen beim Wabenbau der Honigbiene
Zusammenfassung1.Das Nackenorgan der Biene ist bei der Orientierung der Wabe und der Wabenzelle im Schwerefeld das maßgebliche, wenn nicht ausschließliche Kontrollorgan. Ausschaltung dieses
...
1
2
...