Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein.

@article{Ulmer1993HeterologousPA,
  title={Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein.},
  author={Jeffrey B. Ulmer and John J. Donnelly and Suezanne E. Parker and Gary H Rhodes and Philip L. Felgner and V. J. Dwarki and S H Gromkowski and R. Randall Deck and C M Dewitt and Alon Friedman},
  journal={Science},
  year={1993},
  volume={259 5102},
  pages={1745-9}
}
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for conserved viral antigens can respond to different strains of virus, in contrast to antibodies, which are generally strain-specific. The generation of such CTLs in vivo usually requires endogenous expression of the antigen, as occurs in the case of virus infection. To generate a viral antigen for presentation to the immune system without the limitations of direct peptide delivery or viral vectors, plasmid DNA encoding influenza A nucleoprotein was… CONTINUE READING
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