Heterogeneity of unfractionated heparins studied in connection with species, source, and production processes.

  title={Heterogeneity of unfractionated heparins studied in connection with species, source, and production processes.},
  author={Pietro Bianchini and Lino Liverani and Giuseppe Mascellani and Bruna Parma},
  journal={Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis},
  volume={23 1},
The heterogeneity of unfractionated heparins (Hep) can be correlated to the species and organs of origin and to the process of production. Heparins, extracted by different, validated processes from different organs and/or tissues (mucosa, thymus, pancreas, placenta, lung, intestine) or mammals (pig, beef, sheep, man) and other vertebrates (chicken), have been examined by HPLC analysis of heparinase digests. By analysis of disaccharides many observations have been made. Porcine mucosa heparin… 

Structural peculiarity and antithrombin binding region profile of mucosal bovine and porcine heparins.

By-Products of Heparin Production Provide a Diverse Source of Heparin-like and Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans

Collective analyses indicate that the by-products of standard heparin production represent an untapped and economical source of structurally-diverse Hp-like and HS polysaccharides with the potential for enhancing future structure-activity studies and uncovering new biomedical applications of these important natural products.

Quantitative PCR and Disaccharide Profiling to Characterize the Animal Origin of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction method has been developed to ensure the purity of the porcine origin of crude heparin, with a DNA detection limit as low as 1 ppm for bovine, or 10 ppm for ovine contaminants.

Turkey intestine as a commercial source of heparin? Comparative structural studies of intestinal avian and mammalian glycosaminoglycans.

Structural and haemostatic features of pharmaceutical heparins from different animal sources: challenges to define thresholds separating distinct drugs

It is reasonably indicated that pharmaceutical preparations of heparin from different animal sources constitute distinct drugs, thus requiring specific regulatory rules and therapeutic evaluations.

Variability of heparins and heterogeneity of low molecular weight heparins.

The reported examples prove that the variability among samples of LMWHs manufactured by the same process is quite limited, and most of the variability is derived from the parent UFH.

Bovine Mucosal Heparins Are Comparable to Porcine Mucosal Heparin at USP Potency Adjusted Levels

BMH, when used at comparable anti-Xa unit levels, is comparable to PMH, however, it requires proportionally higher amount of protamine due to the increased mass for adjusting to higher potency.

Heparin mimetics with anticoagulant activity

This review encompasses the development of heparin mimetics of various structural classes, including synthetic polymers and non‐carbohydrate small molecules as well as sulfated oligo‐ and polysaccharides, and fondaparinux derivatives and conjugates, with a focus on developments in the past 10 years.