Strains of Mycoplasma iowae were homogeneous in some characteristics and heterogeneous in others. Thus, the biochemical tests, immunofluorescence, and protein profiling by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were group-specific tests. However, some minor differences in protein patterns were seen among strains. The growth inhibition test tended to be strain-specific. Hemagglutination titers were very low and unstable for the majority of strains. One strain (RY-65) with a stable high-titer hemagglutinin failed to react in the hemagglutination-inhibition test against immune sera to the reference strains. Restriction endonuclease DNA analyses was the most useful method to differentiate 1 strain from another.