Hesitation Disfluencies in Spontaneous Speech: The Meaning of um

@article{Corley2008HesitationDI,
  title={Hesitation Disfluencies in Spontaneous Speech: The Meaning of um},
  author={Martin Corley and Oliver W. Stewart},
  journal={Lang. Linguistics Compass},
  year={2008},
  volume={2},
  pages={589-602}
}
Human speech is peppered with ums and uhs, among other signs of hesitation in the planning process. But are these so-called fillers (or filled pauses) intentionally uttered by speakers, or are they side-effects of difficulties in the planning process? And how do listeners respond to them? In the present paper, we review evidence concerning the production and comprehension of fillers such as um and uh, in an attempt to determine whether they can be said to be ‘words’ with ‘meanings’ that are… 
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