Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer's disease

@article{Itzhaki1997HerpesSV,
  title={Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer's disease},
  author={Ruth F. Itzhaki and Woan-Ru Lin and D Shang and Gordon Wilcock and Brian S. Faragher and Gordon A. Jamieson},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1997},
  volume={349},
  pages={241-244}
}
BACKGROUND The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4) allele is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is neither essential nor sufficient for development of the disease. Other factors-genetic or environmental-must therefore have a role. By means of a PCR we have detected herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in latent form in brains of elderly people with and without AD. We have postulated that limited reactivation of the virus causes more damage in AD patients than in elderly… Expand
PCR Search for the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Genome in Brain Sections of Patients with Familial Alzheimer's Disease
TLDR
Results are suggestive of limited reactivation of HSV-1, coupled with β-amyloid deposition, in the brains of individuals with familial AD. Expand
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Brain, Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Alzheimer’s Disease
TLDR
It is confirmed that the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E is a risk factor for AD and that HSV-1, either alone or in combination with apoE, does not represent an increased risk for AD. Expand
Herpesviruses in brain and Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
Three other herpesviruses are sought in brain of elderly normal subjects and Alzheimer's disease patients: human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)—types A and B, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV); HHV6 is present in a much higher proportion of the AD than of age‐matched normal brains, but there is extensive overlap with the presence of HSV1 in AD brains. Expand
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
The finding that HSV1 is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease when in the central nervous system of APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers is discovered and it is suggested that the combination of virus and genetic factor is particularly damaging in the nervous system. Expand
Productive herpes simplex virus in brain of elderly normal subjects and Alzheimer's disease patients
TLDR
The HSV 1 results confirm the original PCR findings that show the presence of HSV1 DNA sequences in many elderly brains, and indicate also that the whole functionalHSV1 genome is present, and that the virus has replicated. Expand
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus
  • R. Itzhaki
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Front. Aging Neurosci.
  • 2014
TLDR
In relation to the potential usage of antivirals to treat AD patients, acyclovir is effective in reducing HSV1-induced AD-like changes in cell cultures, and valacy Clovir, the bioactive form of ACV, might be most effective if combined with an antiviral that acts by a different mechanism, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Expand
Open peer commentary Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
It is discovered that herpes simplex type 1 virus is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease when in the central nervous system of APOE- e4 allele carriers, and it is suggested that the combination of virus and genetic factor is particularly damaging in the nervous system. Expand
Lack of association between HSV-1 DNA in the brain, Alzheimer’s disease and apolipoprotein E4
TLDR
An association between herpes simplex type 1, ApoE4 and AD has been reported, and HSV-1 DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the brains of 28/44 controls and 34/46 AD patients. Expand
Herpes simplex encephalitis: involvement of apolipoprotein E genotype.
TLDR
It seems that apoE epsilon2 is a risk factor for HSE, which is significantly higher than the value of 7% for the normal subjects. Expand
Independent and Correlated Role of Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 Genotype and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer's Disease.
TLDR
HSV-1 and APOEɛ4 increase the risk of AD and relate to abnormal autophagy, higher concentrations of HSV- 1 DNA in AD, and formation of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Expand
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