Herpes simplex virus‐induced anti‐N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor encephalitis: a systematic literature review with analysis of 43 cases

@article{Nosadini2017HerpesSV,
  title={Herpes simplex virus‐induced anti‐N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor encephalitis: a systematic literature review with analysis of 43 cases},
  author={Margherita Nosadini and Shekeeb S. Mohammad and Francesco Corazza and Ezia Maria Ruga and Kavitha Kothur and Giorgio Perilongo and Anna Chiara Frigo and Irene Toldo and Russell C. Dale and Stefano Sartori},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
  year={2017},
  volume={59}
}
To conduct a systematic literature review on patients with biphasic disease with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis followed by anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. 
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis preceded by non-herpetic central nervous system infection: Systematic literature review and first case of tick-borne encephalitis triggering anti-NMDAR encephalitis
TLDR
The first case of TBE followed by anti-NMDARE followed by non-HSV central nervous system (CNS) infection is reported and a systematic literature review is carried out on anti- NMDARE preceded by non -HSV CNS infection. Expand
Virus reactivation after immunotherapy of anti-NMDAR encephalitis secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report
TLDR
It is rare that virus reactivation after immunotherapy of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalopathy is shown, and one patient is retrospectively reviewed who showed this rare situation. Expand
Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
TLDR
A 7-year-old boy who presented with fever and headache that progressed to seizures and disturbance of consciousness is described and it is suggested that JEV may be a clinically important cause of anti-NMDARe in children. Expand
Case Report: Overlapping Multiple Sclerosis With Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature
TLDR
A Chinese female patient diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who developed anti-NMDAR encephalitis is described and the previously reported literature is discussed. Expand
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis can induce chronic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis
TLDR
An 82-year-old male patient with HSV encephalitis who developed shortly after his hospital discharge an anti-NMDAR encephalopathy, characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures and worsening of his residual aphasia is presented. Expand
HSV encephalitis triggered anti-NMDAR encephalitis: a case report
TLDR
It is indicated that anti-NMDAR antibodies could develop earlier after HSE compared with previous data from adults, and it is suggested detecting AE antibodies simultaneously with each CSF analysis. Expand
Cytokine/chemokine elevation during the transition phase from HSV encephalitis to autoimmune anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
TLDR
The presence of cytokine/chemokine phase between the initial HSE and the secondary autoimmune encephalitis phases is suggested and treatment strategy during the early stage of this entity should be further explored. Expand
Possible N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis in the setting of HIV cerebrospinal fluid escape
TLDR
Clinicians should consider autoimmune encephalitis in HIV infected patients presenting with encephalopathy and seizures, particularly in cases with concomitant HIV CSF escape, and NMDAR antibodies were detected during the relapses and a clinical response was observed following treatment with immunotherapy. Expand
Toll-like receptor 3 pathway deficiency, herpes simplex encephalitis, and anti-NMDAR encephalitis: more questions than answers
TLDR
The TLR3 gene was negative in two children with anti-NMDARE post HSE, and other genes associated with HSE (CPT2, NUP214, RANBP2, TBK1, TICAM1,TLR3, TRAF3, and UNC93B1) also tested negative. Expand
Antibody-Mediated Encephalitis.
TLDR
The category of autoimmune encephalitides constitutes disorders with relatively distinct characteristics such as psychosis, seizures, abnormal movements, coma, and dysautonomia that can be successfully treated. Expand
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TLDR
A proportion of patients with HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) were shown to produce autoantibodies against N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) when treated with NMDAR, suggesting postviral autoimmunity may be a factor in relapses. Expand
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TLDR
To determine the presence and kinetics of antibodies against synaptic proteins in patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, a large number of patients with HSE are treated with antiretroviral medication. Expand
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A child with NMDAR-Ab encephalitis after HSE is described, which was recognized and treated early, and a modified immunotherapy strategy is proposed to minimize risk of viral reactivation. Expand
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TLDR
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Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a devastating condition that relapses, often with a chorea in children, despite adequate antiviral treatment. At relapse, evidence of viral replication isExpand
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis after Herpes simplex virus-associated encephalitis: an emerging disease with diagnosis and therapeutic challenges
TLDR
A case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult is reported and anti-NMDA-R antibodies should be searched in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with unexpected evolution of HSE. Expand
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TLDR
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