Hermaphroditism in fishes: an annotated list of species, phylogeny, and mating system

  title={Hermaphroditism in fishes: an annotated list of species, phylogeny, and mating system},
  author={Tetsuo Kuwamura and Tomoki Sunobe and Yoichi Sakai and Tatsuru Kadota and Kota Sawada},
  journal={Ichthyological Research},
Fewer than 1% of vertebrate species are hermaphroditic, and essentially all of these are fishes. Four types of hermaphroditism are known in fishes: simultaneous (or synchronous) hermaphroditism (SH), protandry (male-to-female sex change; PA), protogyny (female-to-male sex change; PG), and bidirectional sex change (BS or reversed sex change in protogynous species). Here we present an annotated list of hermaphroditic fish species from a comprehensive review and careful re-examination of all… 

Hermaphroditism in fish: incidence, distribution and associations with abiotic environmental factors

The incidence of hermaphroditism in fish at the family and species level is determined, the hypothesis that evolutionary relationships account for the poor presence of herMaphroDITism in freshwater species is tested, and the association of sexual systems with latitude, habitat type and depth is tested.

Protogynous functional hermaphroditism in the North American annual killifish, Millerichthys robustus

This is the first observation of functional hermaphroditism in an annual killifish, and discusses the adaptive potential of sex change in short-lived annual fishes through the seasonal decline of males, and during colonization of new habitats.

Size, age, and social control of protogynous sex change in the labrid fish Pteragogus aurigarius

The labrid fish Pteragogus aurigarius undergoes protogynous sex change, with dichromatic and dimorphic differences in sexes, which may be important for sex change of the largest female to male regardless of the number of individuals present.

Masculinization of Adult Gambusia holbrooki: A Case of Recapitulation of Protogyny in a Gonochorist?

The results showed that MT at the dose of 50 mg/kg feed stimulated secondary sexual character development, upregulated expression of amh, formation of testicular tissue and a shift in the behavior similar to those of normal males, prominently so in treated maiden gravid females.

Sex Determination, Gonadal Sex Differentiation and Pl--asticity in Vertebrate Species.

This review outlines the current understanding of vertebrate SD and gonadal sex differentiation, and suggests that this is the ideal biological event that can make us understand the evolutionary conundrums underlying speciation and species diversity.

Morphological and physiological studies on sex change in tropical fish: Sexual plasticity of the ovaries of hermaphroditic and gonochoristic fish

Results suggested that some germ cells in the ovaries of both hermaphroditic and gonochoristic fish maintain sexual bipotentiality, which is the ability to differentiate into both female and male germ cells, throughout the life and that the fate of these germ cells’ differentiation depends on the level of endogenous estrogen.

Multiple sex chromosomes in teleost fishes from a cytogenetic perspective: state of the art and future challenges

It is hypothesized that interaction between fish populations, which differ in their sex chromosomes, can drive the evolution of multiple sex chromosomes in fishes and underlines the importance of broader inter-population sampling in studies of fish sex chromosomes.

Epigenetic Regulation and Environmental Sex Determination in Cichlid Fishes

What is and is not known about the epigenetic mechanism behind the differentiation of both gonads and sex differences in the brain is discussed, and the further neuroethology opportunities such systems provide to the study of epigenetics of alternative life history strategies and other behavioral variation are discussed.

Faster juvenile growth promotes earlier sex change in a protandrous hermaphrodite (barramundi Lates calcarifer)

The results indicate that individual-level variation in maturation schedules is not reflective of trade-offs between growth and reproduction, and suggest that conditions experienced during the juvenile phase are likely to be a key determinant of post-maturation fitness.



Phylogenetic perspectives on the evolution of functional hermaphroditism in teleost fishes.

This work strongly supports sexual lability within teleost fishes and confirms evolutionary theories of sex allocation in this group of vertebrates.

Functional hermaphroditism in teleosts

The review confirms functional hermaphroditism in 27 teleost families in seven orders, predominantly among tropical, marine perciforms in which its diversity of expression is greatest, and explores its phylogenetic distribution, possible origin and range of expression.

Criteria for the Diagnosis of Hermaphroditism in Fishes

The strongest indicators of protandry are transitional individuals whose gonads contain degenerating testicular tissue and developing ovarian tissue, and experimental production of transitional or sex-reversed individuals through manipulation of the social system may identify both protogyny and prot andry.

Bi-directional sex change in marine fishes

The discovery that individuals of some species can change sex more than once has opened up a whole new area of research into the adaptive significance and proximate mechanisms of sex change in fishes.

Reversed sex-change in the protogynous reef fish Labroides dimidiatus

The sex of L. dimidiatus is strictly determined by social status whenever it changes after mate loss, and the first report of reversed sex-change among protogynous wrasses is reported.

Evolution of alternative sex-determining mechanisms in teleost fishes

The evolutionary lability of sex-determining modes in fishes contrasts strikingly with the evolutionary conservatism of sex determination within both mammals and birds.

Mating Systems, Sex Change and Sexual Demography in the Rainbow Wrasse, Thalassoma lucasanum

This study extends observations to the abundant rainbow wrasse of the eastern tropical Pacific, finding that social mediation of sex change may be of value in preventing sex change from occurring at all in situations where the costs of transformation are too great.

Sexual Allocation in a Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Coral Reef Fish

E egg trading and the pattern of allocation of reproductive effort account for the evolutionary stability of the hermaphroditism by providing a fecundity advantage similar to that of parthenogens over sexual organisms.

Sexual selection and reproductive success in hermaphroditic seabasses.

  • C. Petersen
  • Biology
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2006
Although simultaneous hermaphroditic fishes are often held up as strong examples of cooperation in mating behavior, a closer examination reveals significant sexual selection and sexual conflict between male and female roles among individuals.

Comparative Gonad Morphology and Sexuality of the Muraenidae (Pisces, Teleostei)

In this family of fishes, four fundamentally different strategies of reproduction have been recognized, including simultaneous hermaphrodites in which male and female gonads develop in each individual from the smallest to the largest.