Phylogenetic studies were performed on a group of novel Gram-stain-positive, anaerobic, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacteria isolated from a thermophilic biogas plant. The novel organisms were able to degrade crystalline cellulose. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that the isolates SD1DT, SD1G, SD1I and RK1P share 100 % sequence identity, and are most closely related to Herbinix hemicellulosilytica T3/55T with which they share a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.4 %. As a representative of the whole group of isolates, strain SD1DT was further characterized. Strain SD1DT was catalase-negative, indole-negative, and produced acetate, ethanol, butyric acid and hydrogen as major end-products during fermentative cellobiose utilization. Cells are rod-shaped, growing optimally at 40-65 °C and pH 6.5-8.5. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C19 : 0cyc 9,10 dimethyl acetal, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 35.1 mol%. Due to the genetic and phenotypic differences to the most closely affiliated species, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Herbinix within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Herbinix luporum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SD1DT(=DSM 100831T=CECT 8959T).