Hepatotoxicity and Mechanism of Action of Haloalkanes: Carbon Tetrachloride as a Toxicological Model

@article{Weber2003HepatotoxicityAM,
  title={Hepatotoxicity and Mechanism of Action of Haloalkanes: Carbon Tetrachloride as a Toxicological Model},
  author={Lutz W. D. Weber and Meinrad Boll and Andreas Stampfl},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  year={2003},
  volume={33},
  pages={105 - 136}
}
The use of many halogenated alkanes such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform (CHCl3) or iodoform (CHI3), has been banned or severely restricted because of their distinct toxicity. Yet CCl4 continues to provide an important service today as a model substance to elucidate the mechanisms of action of hepatotoxic effects such as fatty degeneration, fibrosis, hepatocellular death, and carcinogenicity. In a matter of dose,exposure time, presence of potentiating agents, or age of the affected… 
Toxicity of carbon tetrachloride, free radicals and role of antioxidants
TLDR
The damage-causing mechanism created by free radicals which are produced by CCl4 on tissues/cells are enlightened and the role of antioxidants in the prevention of tissue/cell damage is discussed.
Oral administration of diphenyl diselenide potentiates hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats
TLDR
This study clearly indicates that (PhSe)2 potentiated acute hepatic damage induced by CCl4, and demonstrated a potentiation of TBARS levels and a consequent depletion of important antioxidant defenses including catalase and ascorbic acid.
[Learning toxicology from carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity].
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • 2006
TLDR
The author's studies with isolated perfused rat liver suggest that covalent binding of CCl4 metabolites rather than lipid peroxidation has a significant role in the production of centrilobular necrosis following C Cl4 administration.
Evaluation of Ginger Oleoresin in Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
TLDR
CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity lead toaccumulation of Ca 2+ in mitochondria, activate many membrane damaging enzymes, causes disruption of mitochondrial metabolism, decreased ATP synthesis and damage micro-filaments that support cell structure.
A Review of Protective Effect of Natural Products Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage
TLDR
A review of important studies about protective effect of natural products on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity is tried.
Non-toxic Level of Acetaminophen Potentiates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.
TLDR
It is suggested that a non-toxic dose of APAP has the potential to increase CCl4-induced liver damage and oxidative stress.
Effect of Ethanol Extract of Phyllantus niruri Leaf on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats
TLDR
The metabolism of xenobiotics to a large extent takes place in the liver and the by-product of such metabolism sometimes becomes more toxic than the parent compound, which could lead to liver damage and ultimately to the emergence of liver disease.
Postulated Carbon Tetrachloride Mode of Action: A Review
  • M. Manibusan, M. Odin, D. Eastmond
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews
  • 2007
TLDR
Doses that do not cause sustained cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation would subsequently be protective of liver tumors if this is the primary mode of action, according to a body of scientific evidence.
ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES
TLDR
The present results indicate that CCl 4 has a potential cytotoxic effect in rat heptocytes; and TQ can afford a significant protection against CCl4 –induced hepatotoxicity.
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