Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity

@article{Silvie2003HepatocyteCI,
  title={Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity},
  author={Olivier Silvie and Eric Rubinstein and Jean François Franetich and Michel Prenant and Elodie Belnoue and Laurent R{\'e}nia and Laurent Hannoun and Wijnand M. C. Eling and Shoshana Levy and Claude Boucheix and Dominique Mazier},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  year={2003},
  volume={9},
  pages={93-96}
}
Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and first invade the liver of the mammalian host, as an obligatory step of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Within hepatocytes, Plasmodium sporozoites reside in a membrane-bound vacuole, where they differentiate into exoerythrocytic forms and merozoites that subsequently infect erythrocytes and cause the malaria disease. Plasmodium sporozoite targeting to the liver is mediated by the specific binding of major… 
Expression of human CD81 differently affects host cell susceptibility to malaria sporozoites depending on the Plasmodium species
TLDR
It is shown that expression of human CD81 in CD81‐knockout mouse hepatocytes is sufficient to confer susceptibility to P. yoelii but not P. falciparum sporozoite infection, and suggested that in addition to CD81, other molecules are specifically required for PV formation during infection by the human malaria parasite.
Molecular determinants of SR-B1-dependent Plasmodium sporozoite entry into hepatocytes
TLDR
The functional region of human SR-B1 within apical loops is mapped, suggesting that this region of the protein may play a crucial role for interaction of sporozoite ligands with host cells and thus the very first step of Plasmodium infection.
Plasmodium sporozoites require the protein B9 to invade hepatocytes
TLDR
It is shown that B9 is secreted from sporozoite micronemes and is required for productive invasion of hepatocytes and suggested that Plasmodium sporozoites and merozoites may share common structural modules to assemble protein complexes for invasion of host cells.
Molecular determinants of SR-B1-dependent Plasmodium sporozoite entry into hepatocytic cells
TLDR
The structural determinants of SR-B1, an important hepatocyte entry factor for human-infecting P. berghei infection, are identified and paves the way toward a better characterization of the molecular interactions underlying the crucial early stages of infection, a pre-requisite for the development of novel malaria vaccine strategies.
Anti-CD81 but not anti-SR-BI blocks Plasmodium falciparum liver infection in a humanized mouse model.
TLDR
Observations confirm the role of CD81 in liver-stage malaria and question that of SR-BI, which might be a valuable drug target for the prevention of malaria.
Alternative invasion pathways for Plasmodium berghei sporozoites.
TLDR
It is found that depending on the host cell type, P. berghei sporozoites can use several distinct pathways for invasion, which may explain why it is capable of infecting a wide range of host cell types in vitro.
Plasmodium P36 determines host cell receptor usage during sporozoite invasion
TLDR
It is shown that the two main species causing malaria in humans, Plasmodium falciparum and PlasModium vivax, rely on two distinct host cell surface proteins, CD81 and the Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI), respectively, to infect hepatocytes.
CD81 is required for rhoptry discharge during host cell invasion by Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites
TLDR
Transgenic P. yoelii parasites expressing fluorescent versions of three known rhoptry proteins are generated, providing the first direct evidence for a role of CD81 during sporozoite productive invasion.
Plasmodium sporozoites can invade hepatocytic cells independently of the Ephrin receptor A2
TLDR
It is shown that blocking EphA2 has no significant impact on P. yoelii or P. berghei host cell infection, irrespective of the entry route, and argues against an important role of Eph a2 during malaria liver infection.
Current Challenges in the Identification of Pre-Erythrocytic Malaria Vaccine Candidate Antigens
TLDR
The identification of malaria antigens expressed in the sporozoite and liver-stage may provide new vaccine candidates to be included, alone or in combination, as recombinant protein-based, virus-like particles or sub-unit virally-vectored vaccines.
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