Hepatitis D virus: an update

  title={Hepatitis D virus: an update},
  author={St{\'e}phanie Pascarella and Francesco Negro},
  journal={Liver International},
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection involves a distinct subgroup of individuals simultaneously infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and characterized by an often severe chronic liver disease. HDV is a defective RNA agent needing the presence of HBV for its life cycle. HDV is present worldwide, but the distribution pattern is not uniform. Different strains are classified into eight genotypes represented in specific regions and associated with peculiar disease outcome. Two major specific… 
Hepatitis D virus infection, replication and cross-talk with the hepatitis B virus.
The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HBsAgs and the molecular pathway involved in their promotion of LDAg nuclear export are reviewed and regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs).
Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis D virus epidemiology: Changes over time and possible future influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
HDV endemicity progressively decreased over the 50 years from the identification of the virus, due to improved population lifestyles and economic levels, to the use of HBV nuclei(t)side analogues to suppress HBV replication and to the application of universal HBV vaccination programs.
Prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis delta virus among chronic hepatitis B carriers in Central Vietnam
It is indicated that HDV infection is highly prevalent and HDV-2 is predominant in Central Vietnam, and the management of HBsAg-positive patients in a highly HBV endemic region to in- or excludeHDV infection in terms of diagnostic and treatment options.
Hepatitis D in Children
The present standard of care treatment for HDV yields suboptimal results, but insights into the virology of hepatitis D are stimulating the search for novel therapeutic approaches, particularly the development of prenylation inhibitors and viral entry inhibitors.
Hepatitis D virus coinfection and superinfection.
  • F. Negro
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine
  • 2014
HDV-associated chronic liver disease (chronic hepatitis D) is characterized by necroinflammation and the relentless deposition of collagen culminating, within a few decades, into the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
A Brief Update on the Management of Hepatitis Delta
Given the severity of HDV, newer and more effective therapies are needed, and there are three novel therapies that are being evaluated for chronic HDV infection, lonafarnib, REP2139-CA, and myrcludex B are reviewed.
Prevalence and clinical significance of hepatitis D virus co‐infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Korea
The prevalence of HDV infection is very low (0.32%) in Korea and therefore, HDV co‐infection may not have a significant clinical impact in Korean patients with chronic HBV infection.
Acute HBV/HDV Infection
  • C. Yurdaydın
  • Medicine, Biology
    Viral Hepatitis: Acute Hepatitis
  • 2019
No therapo of proven benefit for acute HBV/HDV co-infection exists but new treatment approaches may become available soon.
Hepatitis Viruses: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D
Hepatitis D virus is a defective virus that cannot establish or maintain infection except in the presence of HBV, and its prevention and control represent unique challenges due to its unusual characteristics.


Natural course and treatment of hepatitis D virus infection.
Genotypes and viremia of hepatitis B and D viruses are associated with outcomes of chronic hepatitis D patients.
In chronic HBV and HDV dual infections, older age, genotype I HDV, and genotype C HBV correlated with adverse outcomes.
Rapidly progressive HBsAg-positive hepatitis in Italy. The role of hepatitis delta virus infection.
Hepatitis D viremia following orthotopic liver transplantation involves a typical HDV virion with a hepatitis B surface antigen envelope
It is concluded that the HDV virion in the posttransplantation setting is typical, and that HDV viremia following OLT requires the helper function of HBV infection.
Mixed genotypes infection with hepatitis D virus
Investigation of if mixed genotypes infection of HDV occurs in humans found heterogeneity in nucleotide sequence was generally below 2% among HDV quasi‐species from the same subject, while the prevalence of the minor strain was less than 10% of the total colony population analyzed.
Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta (δ) virus RNA
The cloning and sequencing of an HDV RNA isolated directly from a patient with acute δ-hepatitis showed considerable divergence from that of the chimpanzee-adapted HDV, which showed properties similar to those of viroid or virusoid.
Acute and chronic hepatitis delta virus infection: Direct or indirect effect on hepatitis B virus replication?
In a large population of patients, chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection was usually associated with absence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. However, acute HDV superinfection
Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta (delta) virus RNA.
The cloning and sequencing of an HDV RNA isolated directly from a patient with acute delta-hepatitis showed considerable divergence from that of the chimpanzee-adapted HDV, which showed properties similar to those of viroid or virusoid.
Lamivudine for chronic delta hepatitis
Lamivudine is a potent inhibitor of HBV‐DNA replication, but does not improve disease activity or lower HDV‐RNA levels in patients with chronic delta hepatitis.
δ‐Infection and suppression of hepatitis B virus replication in chronic HBsAg carriers
The study indicates that theδ‐agent may have the capacity to inhibit hepatitis B virus replication and that a chronic δ‐infection may lead to a termination of the period of active viral replication.