Estimates indicate the births of 6 to 78 children vertically infected with hepatitis C virus infection each year in Norway. There is insufficient knowledge of the magnitude of this health problem and the National Institute of Public Health commissioned the authors to approach issues relating to vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Norway. The risk of vertical transmission of HCV appears to be associated with the titre of the maternal viral load. Vertical transmission from nonviraemic mothers has not been demonstrated. No postexposure prophylaxis exists. There is a lack of association between vertical HCV transmission and delivery mode and no association with breast feeding. Universal screening for HCV infection among pregnant women is not recommended. Children born to women known to be HCV-positive should be followed up with antibody and polymerase chain reaction investigations in order to clarify their HCV status. More studies of HCV infection among pregnant women and their children in Norway are needed.