Hepatitis B virus sero-profiles and genotypes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injection and Non-injection drug users from coastal Kenya

Abstract

BACKGROUND Information about HBV sero-markers, infection stages and genotypes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs) in Kenya remains elusive. METHODS A cross-sectional study examining HBV sero-marker, infection stages and genotypes was conducted among HIV-1 infected and uninfected, respectively, IDUs (n = 157 and n = 214) and non-IDUs (n = 139 and n = 48), and HIV-1 uninfected non-drug using controls (n = 194) from coastal, Kenya. HBV sero-marker and infection stages were based on HBV 5-panel rapid test plasma sero-reactivity. DNA was extracted from acute and chronic plasma samples and genotypes established by nested-PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS HBsAg positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (9.6%) relative to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (2.3%), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (3.6%), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (0.0%) and non-drug users (2.6%; P = 0.002). Contrastingly, HBsAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (14.6%) and non-IDUs (16.8) in comparison to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3%), and non-IDUs (8.6%), and non-drug users (8.2%; P = 0.023). HBcAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (10.2%) compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (3.3%), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (6.5%), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (2.1%) and non-drug users (4.6%; P = 0.038). Acute (5.7%, 1.4%, 0.0%, 0.0% and 1.5%) and chronic (5.1%, 0.9%, 3.6%, 0.0% and 1.5%) stages were higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs, compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs, HIV-1 infected and uninfected non-IDUs and non-drug users, respectively. However, vaccine type response stage was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (15.4%) relative to HIV-1 infected IDUs (6.4%), and HIV-1 infected (6.5%), and uninfected (10.4%) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (5.7%; P = 0.003). Higher resolved infection rates were also recorded in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (11.2%) compared to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3%), and HIV-1 infected (7.2%), uninfected (6.3%) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (6.7%; P = 0.479), respectively. Only A1 genotype showing minimal diversity was detected among the study participants. CONCLUSION HBV sero-markers and infection staging are valuable in diagnosis and genotyping of HBV infections. Among IDUs, higher HBsAg and HBcAb positivity in HIV-1 infected and higher HBsAb positivity in HIV-1 negative IDUs suggests frequent exposure. Additionally, HBV genotype A is the dominant circulating genotype in both high and low risk populations of Kenya.

DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1060-3

Extracted Key Phrases

3 Figures and Tables

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Kilongosi2015HepatitisBV, title={Hepatitis B virus sero-profiles and genotypes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injection and Non-injection drug users from coastal Kenya}, author={Mark W. Kilongosi and Valentine Budambula and Raphael Wekesa Lihana and Francis O. Musumba and Anthony Kebira Nyamache and Nancy L. M. Budambula and Aabid A. Ahmed and Collins Ouma and Tom Were}, booktitle={BMC infectious diseases}, year={2015} }