Schistosomal glomerulopathy and changes in the distribution of histological patterns of glomerular diseases in Bahia, Brazil.
Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg), circulating anti-schistosomal IgG (CSAb) and circulating specific schistosomal immune complexes (CIC) were detected, using ELISA, in sera of 40 active nephrotic children, 40 active S. mansoni infected cases and 20 apparently normal age-matched controls. The presence of HBsAg cases was significantly higher among nephrotic cases (20%), active S. mansoni cases (17.5%) than controls. Moreover, HBsAg cases were significantly higher in positive CIC S. mansoni cases than negative CIC ones. The mean O.D. readings of CSAb was significantly higher in positive HBsAg nephrotic cases than negatives. At the same time, the anti-schistosomal antibodies were higher in S. mansoni cases with proteinuria than those without. Specific CIC level was significantly higher among nephrotic and schistosomiasis cases than controls. The CIC were significantly higher in schistosomiasis cases with positive HBsAg than those with negative HBsAg and were detected in 80% of cases with proteinuria compared to 37% of cases without proteinuria with a statistically significant difference. On the other hand, CIC level was not influenced, in nephrotic cases, by the presence or absence of HBsAg. It was concluded that the presence of proteinuria was considered as a good monitor of the kidney affection either with schistosomiasis or the nephrotic syndrome or the HBsAg. The detection of CIC can be used as a good monitor too and could be included in methods of early diagnosis and/or following the disease prognosis.