The hepatic extracellular matrix is involved in both the stability of liver architecture and the hepatic function. Fibrogenesis occurs during various chronic liver diseases. It is the consequence of an imbalance between synthesis, deposition and degradation of extracellular matrix components leading to fibrosis and, then, cirrhosis. Hepatic stellate cells are the main source of extracellular matrix components in fibrogenesis. Among the factors involved in fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor beta 1 plays a central role. The vascular and cellular consequences of liver fibrogenesis require new specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.