Population Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Modeling of 5-Fluorouracil for Toxicities in Rats
The hepatic extraction ratios (EH) of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) in rats were studied to clarify the disposition of FUra in the liver. The EH of FUra in rats at infusion rates ranging from 0.375 to 3 mg/kg/min decreased from 0.750 to 0.225. The EH of values of tegafur, a pro-drug of FUra, were 0.076 to 0.103 over the range of infusion rates, 0.577 to 4.616 mg/kg/min, and were much lower than those of FUra. The EH of FUra at an infusion rate of 0.375 mg/kg/min combined with uracil (0.323 mg/kg/min) was 0.646, which was significantly lower than that of FUra alone, 0.750 (P < 0.001). The EH of FUra combined with interleukin-2 (IL-2) at an infusion rate of 7500 U/kg/min was significantly higher than that of FUra alone (P < 0.01). The dose dependence of the EH of FUra and the effects of uracil and IL-2 on the EH of FUra corresponded with clinical findings. These results suggest that this experimental model in rats may be useful for predicting the clinical pharmacokinetics and efficacy of FUra. We also studied the effect of IL-2 on the EH of mitomycin C (MMC). The EH of MMC combined with IL-2 was higher than that of MMC alone, but the difference was not significant.