INTRODUCTION AND AIMS The DIPAK-1 Study investigates the reno- and hepatoprotective efficacy of the somatostatin analog lanreotide compared with standard care in patients with later stage autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). During this trial, we witnessed several episodes of hepatic cyst infection, all during lanreotide treatment. We describe these events and provide a review of the literature. METHODS The DIPAK-1 Study is an ongoing investigator-driven, randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial. Patients (ADPKD, ages 18-60 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were randomized 1:1 to receive lanreotide 120 mg subcutaneously every 28 days or standard care during 120 weeks. Hepatic cyst infection was diagnosed by local physicians. RESULTS We included 309 ADPKD patients of which seven (median age 53 years [interquartile range: 48-55], 71% female, median estimated glomerular filtration rate 42 mL/min/1.73 m2 [interquartile range: 41-58]) developed eight episodes of hepatic cyst infection during 342 patient-years of lanreotide use (0.23 cases per 10 patient-years). These events were limited to patients receiving lanreotide (p < 0.001 vs. standard care). Baseline characteristics were similar between subjects who did or did not develop a hepatic cyst infection during lanreotide use, except for a history of hepatic cyst infection (29 vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Previous studies with somatostatin analogs reported cyst infections, but did not identify a causal relationship. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest an increased risk for hepatic cyst infection during use of somatostatin analogs, especially in ADPKD patients with a history of hepatic cyst infection. The main results are still awaited to fully appreciate the risk-benefit ratio. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER NCT 01616927.