• Corpus ID: 53686818

Hemifacial Spasm : Evaluation and Management , with Emphasis on Botulinum Toxin Therapy

  title={Hemifacial Spasm : Evaluation and Management , with Emphasis on Botulinum Toxin Therapy},
  author={Gary E. Borodic},
Hemifacial spasm is a disorder of the facial nerve characterized by involuntary synkinetic movement of facial muscles on the afflicted side associated with minimal facial weakness. Management of this disorder has transcended several medical and surgical specialties. The condition has implications for ophthalmological practice because of visual obstruction produced by involuntary eyelid closure, which is most troublesome to patients. Neuroophthalmic or neurological evaluation is necessary for… 
1 Citation

Disorders of Involuntary Facial Movement and Blepharospasm , Contemporary Evaluation and Management

Essential blepharospasm is a neurologic syndrome with many components and features that need to be distinguished from other ophthalmologic conditions, such as chronic allergy, uveitis, keratitis, dry eye, chronicBlepharitis can cause secondary reactive blephrospasm.

Botulinum A Toxin for Treatment of Aberrant Facial Nerve Regeneration

  • Gary E. BorodicL. Pearce M. Mckenna
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • 1993
Dose requirements to treat aberrant regeneration of the facial nerve were substantially less than needed to treat blepharospasm and Meige syndrome and dose comparisons were made with 269 injections in 71 patients with hemifacial spasm.

[Hemifacial spasm treated with botulinum toxin].

The most frequent side-effect was a ptosis which was observed in 1 out of 6 injections and was due to diffusion of the botulinum toxin over a territory larger than expected.

Contralateral Injections of Botulinum A Toxin for the Treatment of Hemifacial Spasm to Achieve Increased Facial Symmetry

Six patients noted facial asymmetry after botulinum toxin injection for hemifacial spasm and five of the six patients desired this approach with subsequent injections.

Botulinum A Toxin for (Expressionistic) Ptosis Overcorrection After Frontalis Sling

  • G. Borodic
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • 1992
Botulinum A toxin was injected into the frontalis muscle in two patients with complete third nerve palsies to limit intermittent upper lid retraction after a frontalis sling procedure, representing a clinical example of a denervation field produced by a point injection of botulinum toxin.

Effect of treatment with botulinum toxin on neurogenic blepharospasm.

Thirty four patients with blepharospasm, of whom 28 also had the oromandibular dystonia syndrome, were treated with injections of botulinum toxin type A into the orbicularis oculi, and 28 showed functional improvement after the treatment.

Botulinum a toxin for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis: Dysphagia and regional toxin spread

Limiting the dose administered to the sternomastoid to 100 IU, substantially reduced the incidence of dysphagia and suggested that the quantity of toxin injected into the sterno-cervical muscle was related to the quality of the toxin.

Electrophysiology of the facial nerve in hemifacial spasm: Ectopic/ephaptic excitation

It is concluded that the normal facial nerve is vulnerable to minor compression, the primary pathophysiologic mechanism in hemifacial spasm is ectopic/ephaptic excitation due to compression and demyelination of the intracranial segment of the facial nerve.

Effects of repeated botulinum toxin injections on orbicularis oculi muscle.

Histologic evaluation was conducted on 12 orbicularis oculi specimens from 11 patients with essential blepharospasm and Meige's disease who had received an average of 11.3 injections of botulinum A toxin over 3.5 years, finding Repeated injections ofBotulinum toxin into human muscle do not appear to cause irreversible muscle atrophy or other degenerative changes.

Botulinum A toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm.

Thirty-nine patients with blepharospasm were treated with injections of botulinum A toxin into the lid and brow, finding that tearing, dry-eye symptoms, or transient ptosis occurred in 20% of injections, especially in patients who had had previous eyelid surgery.