Helping a Victim or Helping the Victim: Altruism and Identifiability

@article{Small2003HelpingAV,
  title={Helping a Victim or Helping the Victim: Altruism and Identifiability},
  author={Deborah A. Small and George Loewenstein},
  journal={Journal of Risk and Uncertainty},
  year={2003},
  volume={26},
  pages={5-16}
}
Although it has been claimed that people care more about identifiable than statistical victims, demonstrating this “identifiable victim effect” has proven difficult because identification usually provides information about a victim, and people may respond to the information rather than to identification per se. We show that a very weak form of identifiability—determining the victim without providing any personalizing information—increases caring. In the first, laboratory study, subjects were… 
When Helping the Victim Matters More Than Helping a Victim
Consequentialists insist there is no rational basis for distinguishing between determinate (or identifiable) victims and indeterminate (or statistical) victims. Whether it's a child drowning at our
What's in a Name? The Disparate Effects of Identifiability on Offenders and Victims of Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is undergoing an identification revolution, as more victims choose to forego their anonymity and divulge their identity to the public. Research in social psychology on the
Who Is The Identifiable Victim?--Caste Interacts With Sympathy In India
Earlier studies have documented an “identifiable victim effect”-- people donate more to help individual people than to groups. Evidence suggests that this is in part due to an emotional reaction to
Testing the Identifiable Victim Effect With Both Animal and Human Victims in Anti-Littering Messages
ABSTRACT The identifiable victim effect is when people are more willing to help identified individuals than those who are unidentified, or statistical, victims. It has primarily been tested in
The Effects of Victim Anonymity on Unethical Behavior
We theorize that victim anonymity is an important factor in ethical decision making, such that actors engage in more self-interested and unethical behaviors toward anonymous victims than they do
Statistical, Identifiable and Iconic Victims and Perpetrators
We draw out implications of the identifiable victim effect - the greater sympathy shown toward identifiable than statistical victims - for public finance. We first review research showing (1) that
The identifiable victim effect: a meta-analytic review
Abstract The identifiable victim effect (IVE) refers to individuals’ tendency to offer greater help to specific, identifiable victims than to anonymous, statistical victims. A random-effects
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
Explaining the Identifiable Victim Effect
It is widely believed that people are willing to expend greater resources to save the lives of identified victims than to save equal numbers of unidentified or statistical victims. There are many
Facts and Fears: Understanding Perceived Risk
Abstract Subjective judgments, whether by experts or lay people, are a major component in any risk assessment. If such judgments are faulty, efforts at public and environmental protection are likely
Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games
A surprisingly large amount of otherregarding behavior is the common finding of experiments on bargaining, public goods, and trust. Elizabeth Hoffman et al. ( hereafter, HMS ) ( 1996 ) have provided
Insensitivity to the Value of Human Life: A Study of Psychophysical Numbing
A fundamental principle of psychophysics is that people's ability to discriminate change in a physical stimulus diminishes as the magnitude of the stimulus increases. We find that people also exhibit
Confusion of Relative and Absolute Risk in Valuation
TLDR
It is suggested that willingness to pay for government medical insurance for diseases when the number of people who could not be cured was higher can be explained in terms of a general tendency to confuse proportions and differences, analogous to other confusions of quantitative dimensions in children, adults, the news media, and perhaps even the epidemiological literature.
Perceiving persons and groups.
TLDR
The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments.
Judgments of Responsibility: A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct
1. The Anatomy of Responsibility 2. Responsibility and Achievement Evaluation 3. Responsibility and Stigmatization 4. AIDS and Stigmatization 5. Responsibility, Stigmatization, Mental Illness, and
The life you save may be your own.
TLDR
Within the sparse, apparently simple plot of the story, O’Connor constructs a world torn between renewal and emptiness, natural beauty and crass materialism, compassion and cruelty; the protagonist must choose between these extremes and attempt to experience the grace of God’s love.
A Cognitive (Attribution)-Emotion-Action Model of Motivated Behavior: An Analysis of Judgments of Help-Giving.
Six experiments examined the relations of causal attributions and affect to judgments of help-giving. The first experiment considered the influence of three dimensions of causality (locus, stability,
The sound of silence in prisoner's dilemma and dictator games
...
...