Helping Respondents Get It Right the First Time: The Influence of Words, Symbols, and Graphics in Web Surveys

  title={Helping Respondents Get It Right the First Time: The Influence of Words, Symbols, and Graphics in Web Surveys},
  author={Leah Melani Christian and Don A. Dillman and Jolene Smyth},
  journal={Public Opinion Quarterly},
We utilize and apply visual design theory to experimentally test ways to improve the likelihood that web respondents report date answers in a particular format desired by the researcher, thus reducing possible deleterious effects of error messages or requests for corrections. These experiments were embedded in a series of web surveys of random samples of university students. We seek to examine the sequential and cumulative effects of visually manipulating the size and proximity of the answer… 

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