Help for cytotoxic-T-cell responses is mediated by CD40 signalling

@article{Bennett1998HelpFC,
  title={Help for cytotoxic-T-cell responses is mediated by CD40 signalling},
  author={Sally R. M. Bennett and Francis R. Carbone and Freda Karamalis and Richard A. Flavell and Jacques F. Miller and William R. Heath},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1998},
  volume={393},
  pages={478-480}
}
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which carry the CD8 antigen recognize antigens that are presented on target cells by the class I major histocompatibility complex. CTLs are responsible for the killing of antigen-bearing target cells, such as virus-infected cells. Although CTL effectors can act alone when killing target cells, their differentiation from naive CD8-positive T cells is often dependent on ‘help’ from CD4-positive helper T (TH) cells. Furthermore, for effective CTL priming, this help… 
T-cell help exposed
CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes
TLDR
The results demonstrate that T-cell help is ‘programmed’ into CD8+ T cells during priming, conferring on these cells a hallmark of immune response memory: the capacity for functional expansion on re-encounter with antigen.
Cd40-Independent Pathways of T Cell Help for Priming of Cd8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
TLDR
An in vitro system using dendritic cells (DCs) as APCs and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) class I and II peptide–specific T cell antigen receptor transgenic T cells as cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors and CD4+ T helper cells found that CD4 + T cells can provide potent help for DCs to activate CD8+ T cells when antigen is provided.
CD 40-independent Pathways of T Cell Help for Priming of CD 8 1 Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
TLDR
An in vitro system using dendritic cells (DCs) as APCs and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) class I and II peptide–specific T cell antigen receptor transgenic T cells as cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors and CD4 1 T helper cells found that CD4 2 T cells can provide potent help for DCs to activate CD8 1 T cells when antigen is provided.
Priming of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by dendritic cells: induction of potent anti-tumor immune responses
TLDR
The role of DCs and of the signals critical for effector CD8+ T cell differentiation are discussed, and how the differences in the nature of these signals contribute to the diversity of CD8- T cell responses.
The Fates of Dendritic Cells and Antigen Regulate CD4+ T Cell Responses
TLDR
In the presence of inter-DC antigen transfer, the impact of CTL-mediated DC killing is reduced, hence influencing the size and quality of T cell responses, and shed light on how C TL- mediated DC killing and inter- DC antigen transfer regulate immune responses and how DC vaccine regimens for immunotherapy can be improved.
Helper T cells, dendritic cells and CTL Immunity
TLDR
This review examines the emerging view that all CTL responses depend on CD4 T‐cell help for the generation of efficient memory and argues that the main reason for corecognition of antigen on the dendritic cell may be related to the time taken to activate and release CD4 and CD8 T cells from their priming dendrites.
cDC1 prime and are licensed by CD4 T cells to induce anti-tumour immunity
TLDR
In the setting of tumour-derived antigens, cDC1 function as an autonomous platform capable of antigen processing and priming for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and of the direct orchestration of their cross-talk that is required for optimal anti-tumour immunity.
Direct Cross-Priming by Th Lymphocytes Generates Memory Cytotoxic T Cell Responses1
TLDR
This study presents the first example of Ag presentation by Th cells to naive CTL, and suggests a novel role of Th cells as pAPC for the development of memory immune responses.
Antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell help is required to activate a memory CD8+ T cell to a fully functional tumor killer cell.
TLDR
The data show that T-helper cells specific for the tumor-associated antigen are required for the reactivation of mCTLs by antigen presented indirectly from tumor, in contrast, effector CTLs do not need T help to kill tumors.
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